Rhineland


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Rhineland

(rīn`lănd'), Ger. Rheinland, region of W Germany, along the Rhine River. The term is sometimes used to designate only the former Rhine ProvinceRhine Province,
Ger. Rheinprovinz, former province of Prussia, W Germany. The province was also known as Rhenish Prussia and as the Rhineland. The northern section of the former province (which contained part of the industrial Ruhr district) is now included in the state
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 of Prussia, but in its general meaning it also includes the Rhenish PalatinatePalatinate
, Ger. Pfalz, two regions of Germany. They are related historically, but not geographically. The Rhenish or Lower Palatinate (Ger.
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, Rhenish and S HesseHesse
, Ger. Hessen, state (1994 pop. 5,800,000), 8,150 sq mi (24,604 sq km), central Germany. Wiesbaden is the capital. It is bounded by Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria in the south, Rhineland-Palatinate in the west, North Rhine–Westphalia and Lower Saxony in
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, and W BadenBaden
, former state, SW Germany. Karlsruhe was the capital. Stretching from the Main River in the northeast across the lower Neckar valley and along the right bank of the Rhine to Lake Constance (Bodensee), the former state of Baden bordered on France and the Rhenish Palatinate
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. (For a description, see RhineRhine
, Du. Rijn, Fr. Rhin, Ger. Rhein, Lat. Rhenus, principal river of Europe, c.820 mi (1,320 km) long. It rises in the Swiss Alps and flows generally north, passing through or bordering on Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, France, and
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.) Cologne, Mainz, and Ludwigshafen are among the chief cities. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) after World War I provided for the Allied occupation of most of the region; the RuhrRuhr
, region, c.1,300 sq mi (3,370 sq km), North Rhine–Westphalia, W Germany; a principal manufacturing center of Germany. The Ruhr lies along, and north of, the Ruhr River (145 mi/233 km long), which rises in the hills of central Germany and flows generally west to the
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 district was occupied by French and Belgian forces from 1923 to 1925. Largely as a result of the efforts of the German foreign minister, Gustav StresemannStresemann, Gustav
, 1878–1929, German statesman. A founder (1902) and director (until 1918) of the Association of Saxon Industrialists, Stresemann entered the Reichstag in 1907 as a deputy of the National Liberal party and represented the interests of big business.
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, the last occupation troops (who were French) withdrew from the Rhineland in June, 1930, five years before the terminal date set by the treaty. The Treaty of Versailles had also provided that after Germany recovered the occupied territories, it was to maintain no fortifications on the left bank of the Rhine and within a zone extending 31 mi (50 km) E of the Rhine. Germany specifically reaffirmed those conditions in the Locarno Pact of 1925. In Mar., 1936, however, the National Socialist (Nazi) government of Germany began to remilitarize the Rhineland, and at the same time Hitler denounced the Locarno Pact. The League of Nations censured Germany, but took no further action. The German fortifications in the Rhineland—the so-called Siegfried Line—were an extensive system of defenses in depth, which were penetrated by the Allies in World War II only after very heavy fighting. The Rhineland was the scene of the Rhenish separatist movement, whose leaders staged uprisings in Düsseldorf, Bonn, Koblenz, Wiesbaden, and Mainz, and proclaimed a Rhineland republic at Aachen in 1923; the movement, however, collapsed in 1924.

Rhineland

the region of Germany surrounding the Rhine
References in periodicals archive ?
(1.) For example, Walter Allan McDougall's France's Rhineland Policy 1914-24 (Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1978) and Elspeth O'Riordan's Britain and the Ruhr Crisis (New York, Palgrave, 2001)
Brophy proposes looking at Vormarz Rhineland, which after the Vienna settlement in 1815 became a province of eastward-looking and absolutist Prussia.
Included in the price: n Return coach travel from Coventry n Return Channel crossings n Three nights accommodation, staying in a good quality hotel in Rhineland region Please note local pick ups are operated subject to a minimum number of passengers MISTRAL HOLIDAYS ABTA NO V0669
Somewhat surprisingly, the old bishoprics of the Rhineland encouraged widespread schooling, leading to a literacy rate of somewhere between 70 and 80 per cent.
Garman (history, Easter New Mexico University) has made a study of one of the more obscure forms of the concept of the Mother Goddess--the cult of the matronae in prehistoric Rhineland. Combining the skimpy historical data with an evaluation of archaeological finds, he puts forth a hypothesis as to the origins and nature of the goddesses.
So far, the Ford Focus (European model), Focus C-MAX, S-MAX, and Galaxy models have achieved the TUV Rhineland "Allergy-Tested Interior" seal of approval.
The head honcho, gun designer and machinist at Rhineland Arms is Thomas Seidel.
In presenting the collection, the curators decided against a traditional chronological progression, reorganizing the material around nine themes including Periods, Power, From wilderness to city, From gods to God, Secrets of discovery, and Rhineland and the World.
On the completion of all of these measures in the Rhineland coalfield, the reduction in [CO.sub.2] emissions for the same amount of electricity produced will amount to more than 6M mt/yr.--ICL
The catalog begins with a brief essay by Herzig assessing the question of continuity of antisemitism in the Rhineland and Westphalia.
This, then, is the fullness of time: When the Son of God is begotten in us." (Meister Eckhart, 13th-century Rhineland mystic)
With the departure of former director Jochen Poetter, who failed to revive the institution following his 1997 appointment, many in the Rhineland are pinning their hopes on Konig to turn around the museum's--and the city's--cultural life.