Rhinitis


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rhinitis

[rī′nīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of the mucous membranes in the nose.

Rhinitis

 

inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose. It may be a self-contained disease or a symptom of acute catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, influenza, and other infectious diseases; it may also be the result of injury to a mucous membrane.

Acute rhinitis as a self-contained disease (the common cold) generally occurs in wet and cold weather. The causative agents are various microbes (streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci) and viruses. The predisposing factors are general and local chilling and mechanical and chemical irritants. Acute rhinitis usually ends with recovery. Complications (diseases of the paranasal sinuses, inflammation of the middle ear) are comparatively rare. Treatment includes sudorific agents (tea with raspberries), acetylsalicylic acid or aminophenazone when there is fever, nose drops (1 percent menthol oil, 1–3 percent ephedrine solution) to facilitate nasal breathing, and revulsive agents (mustard plasters applied to the feet and hot leg baths). Prevention includes the building up of natural resistance from early childhood.

Chronic rhinitis results from the repeated recurrence of acute rhinitis. It is manifested by constant thick discharges from the nose, obstruction of nasal breathing, and a decreased sense of smell. Treatment includes physical therapy, lubrication of the nasal mucosa, and the use of nose drops. Prevention includes the elimination of the causes of recurrent acute rhinitis.

A particular form of rhinitis is allergic, or anaphylactic, rhinitis, which is an allergic reaction to dust and to pollen when certain plants are in bloom (for example, hay fever). The disease is characterized by intermittent attacks marked by itching in the nose, frequent sneezing, copious watery discharges, and nasal obstruction. Treatment includes the administration of antiallergic agents and the detection and elimination of the allergen.

L. V. NEIMAN

References in periodicals archive ?
Allergic rhinitis is also known as 'hay fever.' The symptoms of allergic rhinitis include itchiness in mouth, nose, throat, eyes, as well as other body parts.
Thirty-five patients who were admitted to our clinic in the period from May 2015 to June 2016 with allergic rhinitis symptoms and diagnosed with allergic rhinitis based on nasal examination and a positive skin prick test (SPT) for D2 allergen were included in the study as the study group.
'Allergic Rhinitis the most common allergy in the country is also turning severe with the passage of time,' said a senior ENT surgeon, Dr Azamullah Khan.
Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been demonstrated as a potential effective treatment for HDM-induced allergic rhinitis.[7] SLIT drugs contain a low dose of an extract from HDM, aiming to modulate the immune reaction and achieving long-term efficacy.[8] SLIT is more convenient and safer than subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT), which is another commonly used immunotherapy against HDM-induced AR.[9] The formulations of SLIT include drops and tablets, and there is a trend for the SLIT tablets to gradually replace the use of SLIT drops due to their more convenient transportation and safer and more effective outcomes.
Results: The serum IL levels of allergic rhinitis, asthma and complication groups were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.01), and the levels of complication group significantly exceeded those of asthma group (P<0.05).
The company said Ryaltris is an investigational fixed-dose combination nasal spray of an antihistamine and a steroid for the proposed treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) in patients 12 years of age and older.
The mucosa of nose and sinuses is in continuity and closely related that is why rhinitis and sinusitis occur together mostly and named as such6.
Many doctors, including myself, previously referred to the condition as autonomic rhinitis because of its connection to the autonomic nerves that go to the nose.
Appropriateness of medication selection was evaluated by an expert panel of clinical researcher pharmacists and specialist respiratory physicians based on the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma international guidelines.
One study has shown that after the nasal cavity was illuminated using a low-energy narrow-band red light three times a day for 14 days, the symptoms and endoscopic findings in patients with allergic rhinitis improved significantly [1].
'We should come together to increase the level of awareness about Allergic Rhinitis and address this issue on all forums.
Holy Family Hospital ENT Department Head Dr Muhammad Ajmal said, 'Allergic Rhinitis or hay fever, happens when one breathes in something to which one is allergic, and the inside of the nose becomes inflamed and swollen.