The germination of this species is of the Vittaria type (Nayar & Kaur 1968), as the first prothallial cell appears by means of a division that occurs perpendicular to the first rhizoid
. This is one of the most common patterns of germination within leptosporangiates, and it has been cited as usual in the Pteridaceae (Nayar & Kaur 1969, 1971).
Nussbaum and Wilson each, in quite dissimilar ways, develop theoretical models for emotions that show them to be, no matter how strong the illusion of simple spontaneity and immediacy, multi-layered and rhizoid
Basal portion formed by multicellular rhizoids
with haptera (Fig.
The natural substrate selected for algal sampling consisted of rhizoids
of the floating aquatic macrophyte Ricciocarpus natans (Ricciaceae).
numerous, originating from the prostrate part of thallus.
In accordance with Mendoza-Ruiz (2001), the criterion used in this study to determine spore germination is the formation of the first rhizoid
and/or prothallial cells or both simultaneously.
Ruminal mold goes through a series of changes and developments, starting with the release zoospores after 15 min to 1 h of feeding and then continues through several stages such as germination, development of rhizoid
, differentiation and etc.
However, the rhizoid
(a rootlike extension) of the alga Chara is a model system in which all stages of gravitropism can be analyzed in a single cell (Braun and Sievers, 1994; Kiss, 1994; Sievers et al., 1996).
ce= spore coat, cp= prothallial cell, cr= rhizoidal cell, gg= oil bodies, r= rhizoid
The anaerobic fungi contribute mainly to fiber digestion in the rumen with their effective cellulolytic enzymes as well as physical penetration of fungal rhizoid
into the fiber matrix (Ho and Abdullah, 1988).
richardii spore polarity by gravity is that the direction of growth of the primary rhizoid
, when it emerges, is downward, in line with the vector of gravity (Edwards and Roux, 1994).
The identification of the isolated Flavobacterium strain was checked on the basis of the characteristic yellow-green colonies, with rhizoid
edges that contained Gram negative rods exhibiting gliding motility (Shamsudin and Plumb, 1996).