Rhodes, Cecil John
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Rhodes, Cecil John(sĕs`ĭl, rōdz), 1853–1902, British imperialist and business magnate.
The son of a Hertfordshire clergyman, he first went to South Africa in 1870, joining his oldest brother, Herbert, on a cotton plantation in Natal. In 1871 the brothers staked a claim in the newly opened Kimberley diamond fields, where Cecil was to make most of his fortune. He returned to England in 1873 and entered Oxford, but his studies were repeatedly interrupted by visits to South Africa and he did not receive his degree until 1881. His power in the diamond-mining industry developed until, in 1880, he formed the De Beers Mining Company, which was second only to that organized by Barney BarnatoBarnato, Barnett
, 1852–97, South African financier, b. London. His name originally was Barney Isaacs; he first called himself Barney Barnato when he performed as a comedian.
..... Click the link for more information. .
In 1888 he tricked LobengulaLobengula
, c.1833–94, king of Matabeleland (now in Zimbabwe). After succeeding his father (1870), he tried to turn aside the approaches of European colonizers. In 1888, however, under pressure from Cecil Rhodes, he ceded his mineral rights in exchange for small payment,
..... Click the link for more information. , the Ndebele (Matabele) ruler, into an agreement by which Rhodes secured mining concessions in Matabeleland and Mashonaland. He exploited these through the British South Africa Company (organized 1889), which soon established complete control of the territory. In 1888, Rhodes had also secured a monopoly of the Kimberley diamond production by the creation (with Barnato) of the De Beers Consolidated Mines, which reputedly had the largest capital in the world.
Rhodes left nearly all his fortune of £6 million to public service. One of his chief benefactions was the Rhodes Scholarships to Oxford, administered by the Rhodes Trust and now only partly funded by his original bequest. Scholarships are now awarded each year to students worldwide; originally only students from the (now former) British colonies, the United States, and Germany qualified.
A trip in 1875 through the rich territories of Transvaal and Bechuanaland apparently helped to inspire Rhodes with the dream of British rule over all southern Africa; later he spoke of British dominion "from the Cape to Cairo." In 1881, Rhodes entered the Parliament of Cape Colony, in which he held a seat for the remainder of his life. In Parliament he stressed the policy of containing the northward expansion of the Transvaal Republic, and in 1885, largely at his persuasion, Great Britain established a protectorate over Bechuanaland.
Rhodes became the prime minister, and virtual dictator, of Cape Colony in 1890. He was responsible for educational reforms and for restricting the franchise to literate persons (thereby reducing the African vote). His personal and business sympathies with the Uitlanders [Afrik.,=foreigners] in the Transvaal, who were mostly British and the victims of discrimination, brought him to conspire for the overthrow of the government of Paul KrugerKruger, Paul
(Stephanas Johannes Paulus) , 1825–1904, South African Transvaal statesman, known as Oom Paul. As a child he accompanied (1836) his family northward from the Cape Colony in the Great Trek that was eventually to cross the Vaal River and establish the
..... Click the link for more information. . The result was the Jameson Raid (1895; see Jameson, Sir Leander StarrJameson, Sir Leander Starr,
1853–1917, British colonial administrator and statesman in South Africa. He went to Kimberley (1878) as a physician, became associated with Cecil Rhodes in his colonizing ventures, and was appointed (1891) administrator of Mashonaland. On Dec.
..... Click the link for more information. ). Although Rhodes did not approve the timing of the raid, he was so clearly implicated that he was forced to resign as prime minister in 1896.
In 1897 a committee of the British House of Commons pronounced him guilty of grave breaches of duty as prime minister and as administrator of the British South Africa Company. Thereafter he devoted himself primarily to the development of the country that was called Rhodesia (since 1980, Zimbabwe) in his honor. In the South African War he commanded troops at Kimberley and was besieged there for a time. He died in South Africa and is buried in Zimbabwe.
See biographies by J. G. Lockhart and C. M. Woodhouse (1963), J. Marlowe (1974), and R. Rotberg (1988).
Rhodes, Cecil John
Born July 5, 1853, in Bishop’s Stortford, Hertfordshire; died Mar. 26, 1902, in Muizenberg, Cape Colony. British colonial figure.
Rhodes was the inspirator and organizer of the seizure of enormous territories in southern and central Africa by the British South Africa Company in the 1880’s and 1890’s. Part of these territories formed a colony, which in 1895 was named Rhodesia in Rhodes’ honor. Rhodes was the founder and coowner of a number of South African diamond- and gold-mining companies. From 1890 to 1896 he was prime minister of the Cape Colony. He was forced to resign after the failure of an attempt to seize the Boer South African Republic. Rhodes was one of the initiators of the Boer War of 1899–1902.