In contrast to the under-expressed proteins, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein
K (HNRNPK) and lymphocyte-specific protein-1 (LSP-1) were shown to be up-regulated in the UM-CLL samples upon BCR-activation.
The proteins mainly distributed in the membrane, cytoskeleton, Golgi apparatus, vacuole, nucleus, cell-substrate junctions, neuron projection and ribonucleoprotein
complex (Table II).
The first is the miRNA motif and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein
A2/B1 (hnRNPA2B1)-dependent pathway.
Smith, "Roles of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins
A and B in cell proliferation," Journal of Cell Science, vol.
HNRNPL (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein
L) and HNRNPA3 (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein
A3) are members of the HNRNP family that regulate different pre-mRNA and mature mRNA transcription .
Lee, "Heritable gene knockout in Caenorhabditis elegans by direct injection of Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoproteins
," Genetics, vol.
During the interference phase, the crRNA in the Cas9-crRNA-tracrRNA ribonucleoprotein
(crRNP) complex base pairs with the corresponding protospacer and stimulates Cas9 for the recognition and destruction of the matching sequence by cleaving both strands of the target .
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein
(hnRNP) binding to hormone response elements: a cause of vitamin D resistance.
complexes containing human LINE-1 protein and RNA.
Interestingly, the CRISPR-Cas9 approach offers genetic manipulation of crops without transgenic footprints by delivering preassembled Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoproteins
 or by transient expression of the in vitro transcripts of Cas9-coding sequence and sgRNA  and thus might not be classified as genetically modified organisms and regulated by existing biosafety regulations.
Korneluk, "The internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation of antiapoptotic protein XIAP is modulated by the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins
C1 and C2," Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.
Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins
. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins
(hnRNPs) are nuclear proteins regulating a broad spectrum of RNA metabolism including alternative splicing, translocation, and translation .