Rice, Condoleezza,1954–, U.S. government official and educator, b. Birmingham, Ala. A political scientist who has specialized in Russian and E European studies, Rice has been a professor at Stanford since 1981. From 1989 to 1991 she was an adviser on Soviet and E European affairs on President George H. W. Bush's National Security Council. Subsequently, she served (1993–99) as Stanford's provost. During the 2000 presidential campaign she was George W. BushBush, George Walker,
1946–, 43d President of the United States (2001–9), b. New Haven, Conn. The eldest son of President George H. W. Bush, he was was raised in Texas and, like his father, attended Phillips Academy in Andover, Mass., and Yale, graduating in 1968.
..... Click the link for more information. 's foreign policy adviser, and in 2001 she became President Bush's national security adviser—the first woman and second African American (after Colin PowellPowell, Colin Luther,
1937–, U.S. army general and government official, b. New York City, grad., City College (B.S., 1958); George Washington Univ. (M.A., 1969). The son of Jamaican immigrants, Powell was the first African American and the youngest person to chair
..... Click the link for more information. ) to hold the post. A member of the president's inner circle, she was an advocate of U.S. military power, a supporter of the Iraq invasion (see Persian Gulf WarsPersian Gulf Wars,
two conflicts involving Iraq and U.S.-led coalitions in the late 20th and early 21st cent.
The First Persian Gulf War, also known as the Gulf War, Jan.–Feb.
..... Click the link for more information. ), and a spokeswoman for the administration's assertive foreign policy. She served (2005–9) as secretary of state during Bush's second term, succeeding Colin Powell. Rice also headed (2017–18) the Commission on College Basketball, which recommended changes in NCAA regulations (but not player compensation) in the wake of an FBI investigation into corruption surrounding the sport and its players. Her books include The Gorbachev Era (1986, with A. Dallin), Germany Unified and Europe Transformed (1995, with P. Zelikow), and Democracy: Stories from the Long Road to Freedom (2017).
See her memoirs (2010); biographies by A. Felix (2002), M. Mabry (2007), and E. Bumiller (2008); J. Mann, Rise of the Vulcans: The History of Bush's War Cabinet (2004); G. Kessler, The Confidante (2007).