Ricercar


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Ricercar

 

in Western European music of the 16th and 17th centuries, a type of polyphonic, imitative composition. It is akin to the fantasia and is a forerunner of the fugue. The term (from Italian ricercare[“to seek out”]) is connected with the interpretation of the imitation as the “finding” of one and the same theme by various voices. The ricercar arose in Italy in lute music; later, ricercars for organ became popular (C. Merulo, A. Willaert, A. Gabrieli, and G. Frescobaldi). In the 17th and 18th centuries, the ricercar was developed mainly by German composers (J. Froberger, D. Buxtehude, and J. S. Bach).

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These performances were recorded on three different organs in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s, and the works include Ricercar a 6 (from Musikalisches Opfer BWV 1079) and the six "Schubler" Chorales.
Ricercar tabulatura (1624) mit einer Choralbearbeitung von Johann Ulrich Steigleder, und drei unter dem Namen von Adam Steigleder uber-lieferten Stucken.
Froberger's Ricercar in F[sharp] minor, for example, highlights the plangent sonority of the C[sharp] and F[sharp] major triads and provides a strong contrast with the rich purity and resonance of the Suite in C major, with its moving opening Lamento.
2) the conception of the ricercar as an exordium that, in its two primary species (one free, the other strict, as defined respectively in rhetorical writings by Aristotle and Cicero), correlate--it is argued--with the improvisatory ricercars of Joan Ambrosio Dalza (1507-1511) and the imitative ones of Marco Antonio Cavazzoni (1523).
Some terminological clarification is necessary at this point: while the early vihuela tientos were chordal, improvisational preludes, the later tientos by Cabezon and other organ composers, as well as the organ fantasias by Santa Maria and those for vihuela by Fuenllana are imitative pieces akin to the Italian ricercar.
Bach's Fugue in G Major (BWV 577), Samuel Scheidt's Canzon Cornetto a 4, and a lovely ricercar by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina.
To place Monteverdi in perspective a number of ensembles also focused on vocal and instrumental music by his contemporaries: Chiaroscuro on Marco da Gagliano, the Consort of Musicke on the prima and seconda prattica madrigal, Ensemble La Fenice on Casteflo, Frescobaldi and others, the Locke Consort and La Sfera Armoniosa on Ucceuini, Strozzi and Kapsberger, Ensemble Sonnerie on Fontana, Ensemble Rebel on Mantuan composers, Guy de Mey and the Ricercar Consort on Monteverdi, Schiitz and Buxtehude .
Ricercar, Centre d'Etudes Supdrieures de la Renaissance, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Francois-Rabelais, Tours, France.
936 A/708 A, Orchestre Philharmonique de Liege, Ricercar RIG 023003 [1983]; reiss ued as Ricercar REC 8006 [1997]).