Previously unidentified, these words signal a long borrowing from an anonymous Middle English tract known as Of Three Workings of Man's Soul, a late fourteenth-century devotional text featuring a translation of Richard of St. Victor
's Benjamin major, and surviving in four manuscripts.
There are short entries on the Stoics, some of the Church Fathers, specifically Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa, and Augustine, the medieval theologians Hugh and Richard of St. Victor
, and many entries on Luther and Lutheranism.
Palmen examines the views of Richard of St. Victor
Finally, the editors include Evans's translation of the complete text of Richard of St. Victor
's tractate On the Trinity, one of the most influential of the twelfth century's contributions to speculation on that topic.
Harkins engage in similar activity in researching Hugh's students, Richard of St. Victor
and Andrew of St.
Over the next 200 years he was regularly described as one of the major figures of medieval learning--Dante placed him in the Fourth Heaven of Paradise (Paradiso xii.133), and Bonaventure described him as combining the skill of Anselm in reasoning, Bernard in preaching, and Richard of St. Victor
Hamilton, Hans Ur von Balthasar and Richard of St. Victor
, Immanuel Levinas and Jean-Pierre Changeux, among many others.
The given exemplars in the "Practices" section are Origen, Evagrius Ponticus, John Cassian, Gregory the Great, Hildegard of Bingen and Richard of St. Victor
. The early challenge was to read the holy scriptures in ways appropriate to hearing the voice of God in each person's life and in the Christian community.
The evidence includes not only religious poetry and visions such as that of Mechtild of Magdeburg (1250s) and Christine de Pizan (1405) or the Platonist treatises of Hugh and Richard of St. Victor
(1150s), but also testimonies of mystical experiences by such important theologians as Henry Suso (1360s).
The sections on Richard of St. Victor
, Joachim of Fiore, and Aquinas crosses the information gap about medieval views of the Trinity that result from many scholars ignoring important medieval contributions.
Countless great believers who were also deep thinkers could be cited -- Richard of St. Victor
, John of the Cross, Teresa of Avila, Lady Julian of Norwich, and on and on.
For his fourth proof, Aquinas relies upon gradations, a proof given by an earlier theologian, Richard of St. Victor
. "Among beings," Aquinas says, "there are some more and some less good, true, noble, and the like." If there are degrees of goodness, then there must be some ultimate degree of goodness.