Richard

(redirected from Richard the Lionheart)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
Related to Richard the Lionheart: Robin Hood, Saladin

Richard

Sir Cliff, real name Harry Rodger Webb. born 1940, British pop singer. Film musicals include The Young Ones (1961) and Summer Holiday (1962)

Richard

 

the name of several kings in England.

Richard I the Lion-Hearted (French, Coeur de Lion). Born Sept. 8, 1157, in Oxford; died Apr. 6, 1199, at Châlus, France. Became king in 1189; member of the Plantagenet dynasty.

A typical medieval knight-adventurer, Richard I waged incessant wars that were alien to England’s interests and cost the country enormous sums of money. He took part in the Third Crusade (1189–92), during which he captured the island of Cyprus and the fortress of Acre in Palestine. On the return journey he was taken prisoner by the Austrian duke Leopold V, who handed him over to Emperor Henry VI. Richard was not set free until 1194, when a huge ransom was paid. In 1194 he began a war against the French king Philip II Augustus, who was attempting to win back the lands held by the Plantagenets in France. Richard was killed during this war.

REFERENCE

Chronicles and Memorials of the Reign of Richard I, vols. 1-2. Edited by W. Stubbs. London, 1864–65.
Richard II. Born Jan. 6, 1367, in Bordeaux; died Feb. 14, 1400, at Pontefract Castle. King from 1377 to 1399; last Plantagenet King. Grandson of King Edward III and son of Edward the Black Prince.
During Richard’s minority the country was ruled by a council headed by Richard’s uncle John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster. Richard took a direct part in the suppression of the Wat Tyler revolt of 1381. In 1389 he began ruling on his own with the assistance of Parliament and part of the nobility. His establishment of strict one-man rule in 1397 provoked a rebellion by the great feudal lords under the leadership of John of Gaunt’s son Henry of Lancaster, who later became King Henry IV. Richard was deposed on Sept. 30, 1399, and subsequently either was killed or died of starvation in prison. Shakespeare devoted a historical drama to Richard II.

REFERENCE

Steel, A. B. Richard II. Cambridge, 1941.
Richard III. Born Oct. 2, 1452, in Fotheringhay Castle; died Aug. 22, 1485, at Bosworth. Became king in 1483; last king of the House of York. Younger brother of King Edward IV.
Richard was created duke of Gloucester in 1461 and became king during the Wars of the Roses. In 1483 he was named protector of the realm during the minority of Edward V, son of Edward IV. Richard deposed the young king and imprisoned him in the Tower of London. In the battle of Bosworth in 1485 Richard was defeated and killed.
In 16th-century literature Richard III is usually portrayed as a direct participant in the murders of the deposed English king Henry VI, of Edward V, and of Edward’s brother. Richard was also said to have poisoned his wife Anne and murdered his brother the duke of Clarence. Richard is the subject of T. More’s unfinished History of King Richard III (Russian translation, 1973) and Shakespeare’s historical drama Richard III.

REFERENCE

Kendall, P. M. Richard the Third. London, 1955.
References in periodicals archive ?
Despite this minor criticism, the work is a welcome addition to the historiography not only of Richard the Lionheart, but also of the nature and development of medieval chivalry, knighthood, and kingship.
Warriors that employed this implement of war include Alexander the Great, Richard the Lionheart, and Edward I of England In a follow up to Backyard Ballistics, Gurstelle instructs engineers, tinkerers, and devilish boys and girls on how to build seven working scale model catapults.
Not a kind, gentle king like Richard the Lionheart, but rather a mean and vengeful king like Henry the Eighth.
December 20 ENGLAND'S Richard the Lionheart was trying to make his way back home via Austria this December evening, in 1192, when he was kidnapped by his enemy, Prince Leopold.
The film also stars Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio, Morgan Freeman, Christian Slater, plus Sean Connery in an uncredited turn as King Richard the Lionheart.
It ruled England from 1154 until 1485, providing some of the greatest monarchs in British history, including Richard the Lionheart and Henry V.
In his last column he advised Richard the Lionheart to look up Google.
To drift lazily down the 1,700-mile Danube is to connect with a tide of European history both highly cultured and fearsomely bloody - from the Romans to Richard the Lionheart, from the Hapsburgs to Hitler.
s champion trainer with the latest on hisCheltenham squad, plus his on a busy day featuring the Leinster National Richard the lionheart Lee Mottershead spends 24 fascinating hours with Richard Johnson and hears one name keep cropping up - Menorah MForum forays Ashforth.
One timely piece discusses how the Saracen is dehumanized in thirteenth century stories of Richard the Lionheart.