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former municipal borough, SE England. See Richmond upon ThamesRichmond upon Thames,
outer borough (1991 pop. 154,600) of Greater London, SE England. The borough was created in 1965 by the merger of the municipal boroughs of Barnes, Richmond, and Twickenham.
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See also: National Parks and Monuments (table)National Parks and Monuments

National Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Acadia NP SE Maine 1919 49,075 (19,868) Mountain and coast scenery.
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1 City (1990 pop. 87,425), Contra Costa co., W Calif., on San Pablo Bay, an inlet of San Francisco Bay; inc. 1905. It is a deepwater commercial port and an industrial center with oil refineries and railroad repair shops. Richmond is a major center of trade with East Asia, Hawaii, and Alaska. The city's diverse manufactures include machinery and instruments, metal products, chemicals, motor vehicles, and construction materials. There is ship building and biotechnology development. Originally part of a Spanish ranch on the site of Native American shell mounds, it was settled in 1823 and then grew with the coming of the Santa Fe RR at the turn of the 20th cent.

2 City (1990 pop. 38,705), seat of Wayne co., E Ind., near the Ohio line; settled 1806 by Quakers from North Carolina, inc. as a city 1840. In the fertile Whitewater River valley, Richmond is primarily an industrial city. There are printing and publishing industries, and metal products, construction materials, foods, animal feed, electronics and electrical products, machinery, and motor vehicle parts are manufactured. Earlham College and Indiana Univ. East are in the city.

3 City (1990 pop. 21,155), seat of Madison co., central Ky., in the bluegrass region; inc. 1800. It is a tobacco and livestock (cattle and thoroughbred horses) market, and there is diversified manufacturing. In the Civil War the battle of Richmond (Aug. 30, 1862) was a Confederate victory. Eastern Kentucky Univ. and a U.S. army depot are in the city.

4 Former name of the New York City borough of Staten IslandStaten Island
(1990 pop. 378,977), 59 sq mi (160 sq km), SE N.Y., in New York Bay, SW of Manhattan, forming Richmond co. of New York state and the borough of Staten Island of New York City.
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5 City (1990 pop. 203,056), state capital, E Va., at the head of navigation on the James River; settled 1637, inc. as a city 1782. It is a port of entry and a financial, commerical, shipping, and distribution center, with a deepwater port. Richmond is a major tobacco market; tobacco and tobacco products are among its leading manufactures. Clothing; chemicals; pharmaceuticals; metal, wood, and paper products; and computer components are also produced. There are printing and publishing enterprises and numerous corporate headquarters in the city. Richmond is the seat of the Univ. of Richmond, Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Virginia Union Univ., and a theological seminary.

Places of interest include the state capitol (1785), designed by Thomas Jefferson; the Washington Monument; the Valentine Museum; the White House of the Confederacy, once the home of Jefferson Davis, and next to it the Museum of the Confederacy; the American Civil War Center; St. John's Church (1742), where Patrick Henry made his famous "Give me liberty, or give me death" speech; the Edgar Allan Poe Museum (in the oldest surviving building in the city, built c.1740); the Robert E. Lee House (1844); Monument Ave., with its statues of Confederate leaders and tennis player Arthur AsheAshe, Arthur Robert,
1943–93, American tennis player, b. Richmond, Va. Ashe rose from his hometown's public courts to become the first African-American male to reach prominence in tennis. He won the 1965 intercollegiate singles championship while at the Univ.
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; Hollywood Cemetery (1847); the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts; and the Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.

The first permanent settlement was made in 1637. Fort Charles was built in 1645, and the site became a trading center. The city was laid out in 1737 under the patronage of William ByrdByrd, William,
1674–1744, American colonial writer, planter, and government official; son of William Byrd (1652–1704). After being educated in England, he became active in the politics of colonial America.
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. It was made the capital of Virginia in 1779 and was raided by the British in 1781. During the Civil War, Richmond became the capital of the ConfederacyConfederacy,
name commonly given to the Confederate States of America
(1861–65), the government established by the Southern states of the United States after their secession from the Union.
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 and the constant objective of Union forces. The city was seriously threatened in the Peninsular campaignPeninsular campaign,
in the American Civil War, the unsuccessful Union attempt (Apr.–July, 1862) to capture Richmond, Va., by way of the peninsula between the York and James rivers. The Plan

Early in 1862, Gen. George B.
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 (1862), when it was saved by the Seven Days battlesSeven Days battles,
in the American Civil War, the week-long Confederate counter-offensive (June 26–July 2, 1862) near Richmond, Va., that ended the Peninsular campaign. After the battle of Fair Oaks the Union general George B.
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; in the Wilderness campaignWilderness campaign,
in the American Civil War, a series of engagements (May–June, 1864) fought in the Wilderness region of Virginia. Early in May, 1864, the Northern commander in chief, Grant, led the Army of the Potomac (118,000 strong) across the Rapidan River into the
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 (1864); and in Grant's campaign of 1864–65 around PetersburgPetersburg,
city (1990 pop. 38,386), politically independent and in no county, SE Va., on the Appomattox River; inc. 1850. A port of entry and an important tobacco market, it has industries producing chemicals, pharmaceuticals, furniture, structural steel, lumber, paper goods,
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, which culminated in Richmond's fall. Much of the city was burned during the Confederate evacuation, Apr. 3, 1865. Richmond National Battlefield Park (see National Parks and MonumentsNational Parks and Monuments

National Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Acadia NP SE Maine 1919 49,075 (19,868) Mountain and coast scenery.
..... Click the link for more information.
, table) includes several of the battlefields.


See E. M. Thomas, The Confederate State of Richmond (1971); L. White-Raible, Richmond: A Renaissance City (1988).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

Richmond (Independent City), Virginia

900 E Broad St Rm 201
Richmond, VA 23219
Phone: (804) 780-7970
Fax: (804) 646-7987

In southeastern VA, northwest of Norfolk. State capital; founded 1742. Major commercial (tobacco products, chemicals, printed material); cultural, educational (Univ. of Richmond and others); and historical center. Capital of the Confederate States of America 1861-65. Established in 1742; incorporated as a town in 1782; as a city in 1842. Serves as county seat for Henrico County. Name Origin: Probably for Richmond, Surrey, England.

Area (sq mi):: 62.55 (land 60.07; water 2.48) Population per square mile: 3225.90
Population 2005: 193,777 State rank: 10 Population change: 2000-20005 -2.00%; 1990-2000 -2.60% Population 2000: 197,790 (White 37.70%; Black or African American 57.20%; Hispanic or Latino 2.60%; Asian 1.20%; Other 3.30%). Foreign born: 3.90%. Median age: 33.90
Income 2000: per capita $20,337; median household $31,121; Population below poverty level: 21.40% Personal per capita income (2000-2003): $29,853-$33,705
Unemployment (2004): 5.60% Unemployment change (from 2000): 0.60% Median travel time to work: 22.10 minutes Working outside county of residence: 42.00%
Cities with population over 10,000:
  • Richmond County seat (192,494)

  • See other counties in .
    Counties USA: A Directory of United States Counties, 3rd Edition. © 2006 by Omnigraphics, Inc.
    The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



    a city in the southeastern USA; capital of Virginia. Population, 230,000; including suburbs, about 550,000 (1970). Port on the lower James River. It is the commercial and distribution center of an agricultural region where tobacco and peanuts are grown; as of 1973, 53,000 were employed in industry. Richmond is one of the centers of the tobacco industry of the USA. The city also has industries producing mineral fertilizers, paper, and agricultural machinery; there is also metal-working and an automobile assembly plant. The city has a university.



    a city in the western USA, in California. Population, 77,000 (1974). Richmond is a port on San Francisco Bay. It is a major center for petroleum refining and the petrochemical industry, and it also has shipyards.

    The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


    1. a borough of Greater London, on the River Thames: formed in 1965 by the amalgamation of Barnes, Richmond, and Twickenham; site of Hampton Court Palace and the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. Pop.: 179 200 (2003 est.). Area: 55 sq. km (21 sq. miles)
    2. a town in N England, in North Yorkshire: Norman castle. Pop.: 8178 (2001)
    3. a port in E Virginia, the state capital, at the falls of the James River: developed after the establishment of a trading post (1637); scene of the Virginia Conventions of 1774 and 1775; Confederate capital in the American Civil War. Pop.: 194 729 (2003 est.)
    4. a county of SW New York City: coextensive with Staten Island borough; consists of Staten Island and several smaller islands
    Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
    References in periodicals archive ?
    Accession 27196, Church records collection, The Library of Virginia, Richmond, VA 23219.
    For more information on the EJE 60 truck, contact Multiton MIC Corporation, 5710 Eastport Boulevard, Richmond, VA 23231 phone 804.737.7400 fax 804.737.9050
    Alloy Polymers of Richmond, VA, and Basell of Hoofddorp, the Netherlands, jointly announced the completion of the sale of Basell USA's 110 million pound polypropylene compounding facility in Gahanna, OH.
    By 2004, the company's corporate groups and their locations will be: Engineering, Dayton, Ohio; Finance, Stamford, Conn., and Dayton; Human Resources, Richmond, Va.; Information Technology, Charleston, S.C., and Dayton; Legal, Stamford and Dayton; Procurement and Logistics, Dayton and Richmond; and Research and Development, Chillicothe, Ohio, and Laurel, Md.
    Sheehan, former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Reynolds Metals Company, Richmond, Va., renamed Chairman.
    Settlers was placed in court-ordered receivership in May 1999 by the Circuit Court of the City of Richmond, Va. The receivership resulted from a failed reinsurance transaction with a company reportedly connected to Martin Frankel.
    Ownership of the nation's largest black-owned auto dealership changed hands recently when Jesse Moore of Richmond, Va., bought and renamed a central Georgia dealership Warner Robins Olds-Cadillac-Pontiac-GMC.
    June 13, 1953, Westbourne, Hampton Gardens, near Richmond, Va.)
    M2 EQUITYBITES-June 27, 2018--South State Bank appoints private banking team in Richmond, VA
    Richmond, VA, June 25, 2015 --( The 7th Annual Black Beauty Expo will be held October 11, 2015 at the Richmond Raceway Complex located at 600 East Laburnum Avenue, Richmond, VA.