artillery guns (including cannon and howitzers) and infantry weapons (including pistols, submachine guns, carbines, and machine guns), which, in contrast to smoothbore weapons, have screw-shaped rifling (grooves) on the interior of the barrel. The rotating band of the shell (bullet jacket), which is produced from a soft metal, cuts into the rifling when the shot is made. Projections and depressions are formed in the rotating band, which causes the shell (bullet) to rotate around its axis while traveling through the barrel and to acquire rotational motion in addition to translational motion, thus achieving stability in the air and a greater range of flight.
Rifled weapons (rifled harquebuses and carbines) have been in existence since the early 16th century, but only around the mid-19th century did they come into widespread use (after the loading method was perfected). Rifled infantry, and later artillery, weapons were adopted by all armies during the second half of the 19th century and replaced smoothbore weapons. The use of rifled weapons facilitated the transition to improved ballistically stable bullets and shells, which has increased the range and maximum rate offire.