Rift Valley fever


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Rift Valley fever

An arthropod-borne (primarily mosquito), acute, febrile, viral disease of humans and numerous species of animals. Rift Valley fever is caused by a ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus in the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae. In sheep and cattle, it is also known as infectious enzootic hepatitis. First described in the Rift Valley of Africa, the disease presently occurs in west, east, and south Africa and has extended as far north as Egypt. Historically, outbreaks of Rift Valley fever have occurred at 10–15-year intervals in normally dry areas of Africa subsequent to a period of heavy rainfall.

In humans, clinical signs of Rift Valley fever are influenzalike, and include fever, headache, muscular pain, weakness, nausea, epigastric pain, and photophobia. Most people recover within 4–7 days, but some individuals may have impaired vision or blindness in one or both eyes; a small percentage of infected individuals develop a hemorrhagic syndrome and die.

Rift Valley fever should be suspected when high abortion rates, high mortality, or extensive liver lesions occur in newborn animals. The diagnosis is confirmed by isolating the virus from tissues of the infected animal or human. Control of the disease is best accomplished by widespread vaccination of susceptible animals to prevent amplification of the virus and, thus, infection of vectors. Any individual that works with infected animals or live virus in a laboratory should be vaccinated. See Animal virus, Vaccination

Rift Valley fever

[′rift ¦val·ē ′fē·vər]
(medicine)
A toxic generalized febrile virus disease of humans and animals in South and East Africa, transmitted by a mosquito, and characterized by headache, photophobia, myalgia, and anorexia.
References in periodicals archive ?
Experimental infection of three Nigerian breeds of sheep with the Zinga strain of the Rift Valley fever virus.
Epidemiologic investigations into outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in humans, South Africa, 2008-2011.
Improved forecast of occurrence of rainfall anomalies over the East Africa region associated with ENSO could help in reducing the severity of outbreaks of diseases such as Rift Valley fever, cholera, and malaria as happened in the 1997/98.
The Meat Board will also supply financing for the compiling of dossiers for the International Animal Health Organisation to declare Namibia free from rinderpest (small stock), lung sickness (cattle), Rift Valley fever, brucellosis and tuberculosis.
The new molecular-based tests include Borrelia miyamotoi, Borrelia hermsii, Rickettsia parkeri, Heartland Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Powassan Virus.
Rift valley fever (RVF) is a viral disease that primarily affects animals (such as sheep, horses, cattle, goats, camels, and buffalos) and has the capacity to affect human beings.
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute mosquito-borne viral zoonosis affecting ruminants and humans [1].
Wool production in South Africa is likely to increase in 2013, as the industry has recovered from the effects of Rift Valley Fever. South Africa's wool production declined to 44.8 million kg in 2011-12 seasons from 48.2 million kg registered in 2009-10 season, following the outbreak of Rift Valley Fever.
In Saudi Arabia, the most common mosquito- borne diseases include dengue (Fakeeh and Zaki,2001, 2003; Ayyub et al., 2006; Khan et al., 2008), filarial (Hawking, 1973), malaria (Warrel, 1993; Abdoon, 2004), and Rift valley fever (Jupp et al.,2002; Miller et al., 2002; Balkhy and Memish,2003; Al-Hazmi et al., 2003; Madani et al., 2003).
Furthermore, in cell cultures, it was found to inhibit the growth of other deadly viruses, like Ebola, Nipah and the Rift Valley Fever virus.
The new global study mapping human-animal diseases like tuberculosis (TB) and Rift Valley fever finds that an 'unlucky' 13 zoonoses are responsible for 2.4 billion cases of human illness and 2.2 million deaths per year.
12 of 2012, issued by Dr Rashid Ahmed bin Fahd, Minister of Environment and Water, will be applicable to importing of processed meat from the countries which have reported cases of foot and mouth disease and Rift Valley fever, said Assistant Undersecretary for Agricultural and Livestock Affairs said.