breast

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breast:

see mammary glandmammary gland,
organ of the female mammal that produces and secretes milk for the nourishment of the young. A mammal may have from 1 to 11 pairs of mammary glands, depending on the species. Generally, those mammals that bear larger litters have more glands.
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Breast

The human mammary gland, usually well developed in the adult female but rudimentary in the male. Each adult female breast contains 15–20 separate, branching glands that radiate from the nipple. During lactation their secretions are discharged through separate openings at the base of the nipple.

In the female, hormonal changes in adolescence cause enlargement of breast tissue, but much of this is connective tissue although some glandular buds form. With the advent of full menstruation ovarian estrogenic hormones influence breast development. If pregnancy ensues, the glandular tissue reaches full development and full lactation begins shortly after birth. After cessation of lactation the breasts regress considerably and once again reflect cyclic regulation. See Lactation

Breast disorders may result from congenital or developmental abnormalities, inflammations, hormonal imbalances, and, most important, from tumor formation.

Congenital defects are usually unimportant except for their psychic or cosmetic implications. Supernumerary nipples and breasts or accessory breast tissue are common examples.

Inflammations are not encountered frequently and usually result from a staphylococcal or streptococcal invasion incurred during lactation. A special form of inflammation may result from fat necrosis. Although any age is susceptible, older women show a slightly higher incidence of fat necrosis, the commonest cause of which is injury from trauma. See Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Syphilis, Tuberculosis

Hormonal imbalances are believed to be responsible for the variants of the commonest nontumorous breast disorder of women, cystic hyperplasia. The changes are thought to result from exaggeration or distortion of the normal cyclic alterations induced during the menstrual interval. Although a wide range of clinical and pathologic variation is commonplace, three major types or tendencies prevail. The first, called fibrosis or mastodynia, is marked by an increase of connective tissue in the breast, without a proportionate increase in glandular epithelium. The second, cystic disease, is characterized by an increase in the glandular and connective tissues in local areas, with a tendency toward formation of cysts varying in size. The third major type is adenosis, in which glandular hyperplasia is predominant. Each major form of cystic hyperplasia has its own clinical characteristics, ages of highest incidence, and distribution. Each is important because the breast masses which occur require differentiation from benign and malignant tumors. These lesions also have been found to predispose to the subsequent development of carcinoma.

Breast cancer is the most significant lesion of the female breast, accounting for 25,000–30,000 deaths in the United States each year. It rarely occurs before the age of 25, but its incidence increases each year thereafter, with a sharper climb noted about the time of menopause. Early breast cancer may appear as a small, firm mass which is nontender and freely movable. Diagnosis at this time carries a more favorable prognosis than later, when immobility, nipple retraction, lymph node involvement, and other signs of extension or spread are noted. Paget's disease of the nipple is a special form of breast cancer, in which there are early skin changes about the nipple. See Hormone

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Breast

That portion of a wall between the floor and a window above; a defensive wall built about breast high.
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

breast

[brest]
(anatomy)
The human mammary gland.
(mining engineering)
In coal mines, a chamber driven in the seam from the gangway, for the extraction of coal.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

breast

1. A projecting part of a wall, as at a chimney.
2. That portion of a wall between the floor and a window above.
3. The underside of a handrail, beam, rafter, or the like.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

breast

symbol of nourishment and fecundity. [Ren. Art: Hall, 52]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

breast

1. the front part of the body from the neck to the abdomen; chest
2. either of the two soft fleshy milk-secreting glands on the chest in sexually mature human females
3. a similar organ in certain other mammals
4. a projection from the side of a wall, esp that formed by a chimney
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

Breasts

(dreams)
Dreaming about breasts can have obvious sexual meaning. However, consider all of the details in your dream in order to obtain the most appropriate meaning. Breasts also represent tenderness, love, and other matters of the heart. Breastfeeding is symbolic of giving or receiving, nurturing, and sustenance. It represents motherly love as well as physical and emotional support and well being. Old dream interpretation books say that breastfeeding is a symbol of great things to come following an extended period of hard work.
Bedside Dream Dictionary by Silvana Amar Copyright © 2007 by Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The patient was diagnosed with invasive carcinoma after undergoing a Tru-cut biopsy (wide-needle) of the mass in the right breast. It was interpreted as histological grade II (M-SMR), nuclear grade II (Black) ER positive (85%), PR positive (85%), HER2 negative, Ki67 score <14%, and E-cadherin was diffuse positive.
? John Ingram was told he had "pre-cancer"by Paterson after finding a lump in his right breast in 2006.
Because the patient's treatment with antibiotics was discontinued, a new breast nodule appeared in the right breast, and the patient was treated with a combination of rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide.
Two years later she represented with a three-month history of a painless palpable lump in her right breast. On examination, a hard, mobile, well-circumscribed 5 cm mass occupying most of lower outer quadrant of the breast was detected.
There is a 2.5 cm isodense irregular mass with spiculated margins in the outer right breast. This mass is more conspicuous on C-view images (Figures 3,4) compared to FFDM (Figures 1,2) and is even more conspicuous on DBT (Figures 5-8).
The ultrasound examination (Figure 1) reveals in the right breast, at the union of both exterior quadrants and at 3-4 cm away from the nipple, a hypoechoic and heterogeneous mass (with hyper and anechoic areas), oval shaped and measuring 16x9x10 mm, lobulated, without Doppler Signal and with no visible right axillary adenopathy.
The biopsy detected breast cancer and Manal was diagnosed with stage 3, grade 2 Infiltrative Ductal Carcinoma in her right breast. Unfortunately, this type is one of 15% of breast cancers which do not show up on a mammogram and are frequently at an advanced stage when diagnosed.
CASE SUMMARY: A 55year old postmenopusal woman presented with a history of lump in right breast for the 4years.
I've been noticing these little brown patches on my right breast. They aren't accompanied by any other symptoms like itching.
After tests they discovered two lumps on my right breast and one on the left side.
A 14 years old female was referred to radiology department for evaluation of under development of right breast. On CT and MRI images the absence of pectoral muscle was noted on rightside.