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persons located on the territory of one state but holding citizenship in another—that is, persons who are not citizens of their country of domicile.

The status of aliens in their country of domicile is regulated by domestic state legislation and by international agreements. Aliens may be accorded national status (equal rights with the local citizens), most-favored status (equal rights for all aliens without discrimination against citizens of a particular country), or a special status (specific, precisely established rights). Rights are granted to aliens, as a rule, on the basis of reciprocity.

In the USSR, aliens enjoy a number of political rights and civil liberties, including freedom of speech, press, and conscience; inviolability of person or dwelling; and privacy of correspondence. Aliens do not have the right to vote and are not subject to compulsory military service. Aliens who are persecuted for defending the interests of the toiling masses, for scholarly activity, or for engaging in a national liberation struggle are granted asylum.

In the sphere of civil and legal rights aliens in the USSR are accorded national status. They can acquire the same civil rights as Soviet citizens (to buy and dispose of property, to inherit property, to conclude contracts, to claim authorship of inventions) and the right to appeal to courts and notary institutions. Aliens may marry Soviet citizens or other aliens; they may adopt children or be adopted; guardianship may be established over them, and they themselves may be guardians. Except for persons who enjoy immunity from jurisdiction (diplomatic and consular representatives as well as certain other persons), aliens are subject to criminal responsibility for any crimes they commit on the territory of the USSR.

Aliens who are permanent residents of the USSR enjoy health care equal to that of Soviet citizens. There are certain legal limitations on the rights of aliens—for example, on moving within certain regions and on choosing certain occupations (ship’s captain, for one).

The USSR has concluded a number of specific agreements on the legal status of aliens—for example, treaties on the rendering of legal aid in civil, family, and criminal cases; citizenship; social insurance; and entering the country without a visa.

The USSR has a system of permissions for aliens with regard to entering and leaving the country: entry and exit are permitted when their passports have special visas; entry or exit without a visa is possible only when there is a specific agreement between the USSR and the state in question. There are simplified regulations for certain categories of aliens—for example, no special permission is required for the crews of foreign merchant ships when they are in port.


References in periodicals archive ?
Despite lacking legislative authority over commerce, territorial acquisition, or the rights of aliens, the Continental Congress made treaties on all these subjects.
Because the DHS's indefinite-detention regulation falls outside the narrowed ambit of plenary power, (176) the Supreme Court should assert its authority and insist that the DHS respect the due process rights of aliens facing indefinite detention.
My paper considers the case of the Guantanamo detainees as a window on the broader question of the constitutional rights of aliens abroad.
With the participation of the judiciary, the rights of aliens would be more expansively conceived.
(119) This reliance provides no guidance as to the rights of aliens who have not yet gained entry into the United States and affords them only minimal rights.
Thus, while the rights of aliens are undoubtedly qualified in
Second, you might join with others to sponsor or join a refugee program in your parish, town, or diocese--doing anything from running an education night (show "El Norte" or "Grapes of Wrath" and discuss the experience and rights of migrants and refugees), to requesting your pastor to preach on refugees for the feast of the Holy Family, to getting involved in some advocacy for the rights of aliens and refugees.
The various substantive human rights problems dealt with in the book include arbitrary arrest and the rights of aliens, indigenous rights, the right of self-determination, consistent patterns of human rights violations, disappearance, the right to free and fair elections, abortion and the right to life, mutilation, and other cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment.
United States,(60) one of the earliest cases to discuss the constitutional rights of aliens stopped at the border, the Supreme Court found those rights to be extremely narrow.(61) In Chae, a Chinese national working in the United States was denied entry into the country upon his return after a visit to China.(62) He petitioned for habeas corpus review, challenging the law under which his re-entry had been denied.(63) The Court found that the power to admit or exclude citizens of other countries was an inherent sovereign power and that Congress had the authority to pass a law excluding aliens.(64)
Richardson means states cannot pursue the goal of greater electoral equality by sacrificing the equal representation rights of aliens alone.
The court's decision in this case is yet another example in which the judicial branch of the United States government has completely ignored the rights of aliens who are "within the United States" according to the INS's definition of this term.(10) What makes Barrera's case so incredible is that he has been imprisoned for over a decade without having been convicted of a crime that could justify such prolonged detention.(11)