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(rēĕ`kä) or


(fēo͞o`mē, Ital. fyo͞o`mā), city (2011 pop. 128,624), W Croatia, on the Adriatic Sea and the Gulf of Quarnero. Croatia's largest seaport, the city's industries include shipbuilding, oil refining, paper milling, and engine building. The city's air port is on nearby KrkKrk
, Ital. Veglia, island, 157 sq mi (407 sq km), in the Adriatic, off the Dalmatian coast, NW Croatia. The largest of Croatia's islands in the Adriatic, it has several small seaside resorts and an airport.
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Dating from Roman times, Rijeka was later held by the Franks. From the 9th to the 14th cent., Croatian dukes ruled the city. It passed to Austria in 1466. Rijeka, which became a free port in 1723, was united with Croatia in 1776, but three years later Austria transferred it to Hungary. It flourished as a major Hungarian port. The French held it briefly during the Napoleonic Wars, but in 1814 it was restored to Austria, which transferred it to Hungary in 1822.

After World War I, Rijeka became an object of dispute between Italy and Yugoslavia. The secret Treaty of London (1915) promised it to Yugoslavia, but at the Paris Peace Conference Italy claimed it on the grounds that Italian-speaking inhabitants formed a majority of the population. While negotiations continued, the poet Gabriele D'AnnunzioD'Annunzio, Gabriele
1863–1938, Italian poet, novelist, dramatist, and soldier, b. Pescara. He went to Rome in 1881 and there began his literary career. Considered by some to be the greatest Italian poet since Dante, he expressed in many of his works the desire to live in
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 at the head of an Italian free corps seized the city in Sept., 1919. By the Treaty of Rapallo (1920), Italy and Yugoslavia agreed to establish Rijeka as a free state. In 1922, however, a Fascist coup overthrew the local government, and Italian troops occupied Rijeka.

The Treaty of Rome (1924) eased tensions by leaving Rijeka in Italian hands but awarding its eastern suburb, Susak (Ital. Porto Barros), to Yugoslavia. Susak was developed into a leading Yugoslav seaport. In 1945 Rijeka passed under Yugoslav administration, and in 1947 the Allied peace treaty with Italy formally transferred it to Yugoslavia, which reunited it with Susak as a single city.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city in Yugoslavia, in the Socialist Republic of Croatia, on the Adriatic Sea in the northern part of the Gulf of Rijeka. Population, 135,000(1972).

Rijeka is a large port, with a freight turnover of more than 10 million tons in 1972; it is also used by Hungary, Austria, and Czechoslovakia. The port of Bakar (3 km southeast of Rijeka), constructed in the 1960’s, is considered part of the port of Rijeka. The city is also a railroad junction. It is linked by highway with resorts on the Adriatic coast; it has a large airport. The city of Sušak (on the left bank of the Rečina River), which is the site of the Rijeka port complex, was united with Rijeka in 1947.

Rijeka is one of Yugoslavia’s main industrial centers. It has two large shipbuilding plants, as well as production of marine diesels and motors, a large oil refinery, and chemical, sawmilling, paper, leather-footwear, tobacco, and food industries. Higher nautical and pedagogical schools and the medical school of the University of Zagreb are in Rijeka; the city also has museums. The old city, with its narrow, winding streets, has been preserved. A Romanesque Gothic cathedral (rebuilt in the 17th and 18th centuries; tower, 1377), the baroque St. Vitus’ Church (1638–1742), and a notable city hall tower (15th to 18th centuries) are in Rijeka.


Hauptmann, F. Rijeka od rimske Tarsatike do hrvatsko-ugarske nagodbe. Zagreb, 1951.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


a port in Croatia: an ancient town, changing hands many times before passing to Yugoslavia in 1947 until Croatia became independent in 1991. Pop.: 135 000 (2005 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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