Robert I


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Robert I,

c.865–923, French king (922–23), son of Count Robert the Strong and younger brother of King EudesEudes
or Odo
, c.860–898, count of Paris, French king (888–898). The son of Robert the Strong, he was an antecedent of the Capetian royal house in France.
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. He inherited from Eudes the territory between the Seine and the Loire rivers. In 922, Robert led a rebellion against King Charles IIICharles III
(Charles the Simple), 879–929, French king (893–923), son of King Louis II (Louis the Stammerer). As a child he was excluded from the succession at the death (884) of his half-brother Carloman and at the deposition (887) of King Charles III (Charles the
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 (Charles the Simple) and was crowned king by a party of nobles and clergy, but he was soon killed in battle. His son-in-law, Raoul of Burgundy, succeeded him. His son was Hugh the GreatHugh the Great,
d. 956, French duke; son of King Robert I and father of Hugh Capet. Excluded from the succession on his father's death by his brother-in-law Raoul, he supported the candidacy of Louis IV, the Carolingian heir, after Raoul's death (936).
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.

Robert I

or

Robert the Bruce,

1274–1329, king of Scotland (1306–29). He belonged to the illustrious BruceBruce,
Scottish royal family descended from an 11th-century Norman duke, Robert de Brus. He aided William I in his conquest of England (1066) and was given lands in England. His son was granted fiefs in Scotland, and the family therefore rendered homage in both kingdoms.
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 family and was the grandson of that Robert the Bruce who in 1290 was an unsuccessful claimant to the Scottish throne. He became (1292) earl of Carrick and on his father's death (1304) assumed the lordship of Annandale and of the Bruce lands in England. In 1296, Robert swore fealty to Edward IEdward I,
1239–1307, king of England (1272–1307), son of and successor to Henry III. Early Life

By his marriage (1254) to Eleanor of Castile Edward gained new claims in France and strengthened the English rights to Gascony.
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 of England, but the following year he joined the struggle for national independence. He appears to have taken part only intermittently until an obscure contest between him and John ComynComyn, John,
d. 1306, Scottish nobleman. He was called the Red Comyn, to distinguish him from his father, the Black Comyn. Aiding his uncle, John de Baliol, in the struggle against Edward I, he was for a time held hostage by the English.
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 (d. 1306) for the adherence of the Scottish nationalists resulted in Comyn's murder (probably unpremeditated) by Bruce or his followers. In defiance of Edward I, Robert was then crowned king at Scone in Mar., 1306. Defeated by the English at Methven (1306), he fled to the west and apparently took refuge on the island of Rathlin, off the coast of Ireland. The Bruce estates were confiscated by Edward, and punishment was meted out to Robert's followers. From this time of discouragement stems the legend that Robert learned courage and hope from watching a spider persevere in spinning its web.

Returning in 1307, Robert won a victory at Loudon Hill, which brought him new adherents. Edward I attempted to lead a new expedition against the rebellious Scots but died on the way and was succeeded by his son, Edward II, who failed to pursue his father's vigorous course. Robert was able to consolidate his hold on Scotland and to recapture lands and castles from the English. StirlingStirling,
town (1991 pop. 38,638), Stirling council area, central Scotland, on the Forth River. The center of a large farm district, it has livestock markets and light industries making agricultural machinery, carpets, and meat products (bacon curing).
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 was besieged by the Scots and so hard pressed that the English governor finally agreed to its surrender if relief from England did not arrive before June 24, 1314. On June 23 and 24, at nearby BannockburnBannockburn
, moor and parish, Stirling, central Scotland, on the Bannock River. Textiles are manufactured in the parish. In 1314 on the moor, a Scottish army of 10,000 led by Robert Bruce routed 23,000 English under Edward II, thus climaxing Robert's struggle for Scottish
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, Robert overwhelmingly defeated the large English relief force led by Edward II. The war went on, and in 1318 the Scots recaptured Berwick. A truce, made in 1323, lasted only until 1327, when the bellicose young Edward III led an unsuccessful expedition to the north. Finally, by the Treaty of Northampton (1328), the English recognized the independence of Scotland and the validity of Robert's title to the throne.

Robert spent the short remainder of his life in his castle at Cardross and died there, perhaps of leprosy. As he requested, his embalmed heart was given to Sir James de Douglas, lord of Douglas, to be carried to Jerusalem for burial. Douglas was killed in Spain, but (according to tradition) Robert's heart was recovered, brought back to Scotland, and buried in Melrose Abbey. By his courage and skill Robert had freed Scotland from English rule. He was succeeded by his son, David IIDavid II
(David Bruce), 1324–71, king of Scotland (1329–71), son and successor of Robert I. David's guardians were not strong enough to prevent the invasion (1332) of Scotland by Edward de Baliol, who, with the support of Edward III of England, was victorious at
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.

Bibliography

See biographies by A. M. Mackenzie (1934, repr. 1957), G. W. S. Barrow (1965, rev. ed. 1988), and R. M. Scott (1989, repr. 1996); C. McNamee, The Wars of the Bruces (1997).


Robert I

(Robert the Magnificent), d. 1035, duke of Normandy (1027–35); father of William the Conqueror. He is often identified with the legendary Robert the DevilRobert the Devil,
hero of a medieval legend. He was sold to the devil by his mother before his birth but upon discovering the fact did penance and was able to purify himself of his many sins. The tale may have been derived from the life of Robert I, duke of Normandy.
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. He aided King Henry IHenry I,
c.1008–1060, king of France (1031–60), son and successor of King Robert II. To defend his throne against his mother, his brothers Robert and Eudes, and subsequently against the count of Blois, he secured, at the cost of territorial concessions, the aid of
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 of France against Henry's rebellious brother and mother, intervened in the affairs of Flanders, and supported Edward the Confessor, then in exile at Robert's court. He also sponsored monastic reform in Normandy. After making his illegitimate son William his heir, he made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and died at Nicaea.

Robert I

known as Robert the Bruce. 1274--1329, king of Scotland (1306--29): he defeated the English army of Edward II at Bannockburn (1314) and gained recognition of Scotland's independence (1328)
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