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Robert II(Robert the Pious), 970–1031, king of France (996–1031); son of Hugh Capet, with whom he was joint king after 987. Distinguished for his piety and learning, he also sought to strengthen the weak royal power, conquered several towns, and secured the duchy of Burgundy for the crown. His son and successor was Henry I.
Robert II,1316–90, king of Scotland (1371–90), nephew and successor of David IIDavid II
(David Bruce), 1324–71, king of Scotland (1329–71), son and successor of Robert I. David's guardians were not strong enough to prevent the invasion (1332) of Scotland by Edward de Baliol, who, with the support of Edward III of England, was victorious at
..... Click the link for more information. . He was the first sovereign of the house of Stuart, or Stewart (see StuartStuart
royal family that ruled Scotland and England. The Stuart lineage began in a family of hereditary stewards of Scotland, the earliest of whom was Walter (d. 1177), grandson of a Norman adventurer.
..... Click the link for more information. , family), which eventually succeeded to the English as well as the Scottish throne. The son of Walter the Steward and Marjory, daughter of Robert I, he was regent three times (1333–35, 1338–41, and 1346–58) for David II during the latter's exile and captivity. He thus led the resistance to Edward de BaliolBaliol, Edward de
, d. 1363, king of Scotland, son of John de Baliol (d. 1315). Having secured English support for his claim to the Scottish throne, he invaded Scotland in 1332 and was crowned at Scone.
..... Click the link for more information. and Edward III of England. Robert rebelled against his uncle in 1363 when David recognized Edward III as his successor. On David's death (1371), however, he succeeded peacefully to the throne, in accordance with the succession law adopted in 1318. Robert's first marriage took place after the birth of several of his sons, but their succession to the throne was legitimized by an act of Parliament in 1373. Through most of his reign the government was dominated by two of these sons—John, earl of Carrick (later Robert IIIRobert III,
1340?–1406, king of Scotland (1390–1406), eldest son and successor of Robert II. Known before his accession as John, earl of Carrick, he ruled for his father until 1389, when, having been crippled by a horse, he was supplanted by his brother Robert (see
..... Click the link for more information. ) and Robert StuartStuart or Stewart, Robert, 1st duke of Albany,
1340?–1420, regent of Scotland; third son of Robert II.
..... Click the link for more information. , later 1st duke of Albany. The Scots in alliance with France fought off several English invasions; they invaded England without assistance in 1388 and won a great victory at Otterburn. Robert was succeeded by Robert III.
Robert II(Robert Curthose), c.1054–1134, duke of Normandy (1087–1106); eldest son of King William IWilliam I
or William the Conqueror,
1027?–1087, king of England (1066–87). Earnest and resourceful, William was not only one of the greatest of English monarchs but a pivotal figure in European history as well.
..... Click the link for more information. of England. Aided by King Philip I of France, he rebelled (1077) against his father. Father and son became reconciled, but Robert was later exiled. At William's death he inherited Normandy. England fell to his younger brother William II, with whom Robert was intermittently at war (1090–96) until Robert went (1096–1100) on the First Crusade. While he was away, William II died and Henry I, youngest son of William I, was crowned. Robert invaded (1101) England but was forced to recognize Henry. In Normandy, Robert's misgovernment prompted an invasion by Henry (1105), who defeated (1106) Robert at Tinchebrai, seized Normandy, and kept Robert a prisoner.
See biography by C. W. David (1920).
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1316--90, king of Scotland (1371--90)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005