Roca, Julio Argentino

Roca, Julio Argentino

(ho͞o`lyō ärhāntē`nō rō`kä), 1843–1914, general who became president of Argentina (1880–86, 1898–1904). Minister of war under Nicolas AvellanedaAvellaneda, Nicolás
, 1837–85, Argentine statesman, president of the republic (1874–80). As minister of justice, religion, and public instruction under Domingo F. Sarmiento (1868–74), he introduced many banking and educational reforms.
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, he crushed (1878–79) the Patagonians, bringing the wars against indigenous peoples to a close and opening the Pampas for colonization. During his first administration, Buenos Aires was made the national capital, resolving the conflict over central rule. It was a time of accelerated immigration, railway construction, exceptional economic growth, financial speculation and, increasingly, government corruption. Roca's second administration was marked by recovery from the crisis caused by the misgovernment of Miguel Juárez CelmanJuárez Celman, Miguel
, 1844–1909, president of Argentina (1886–90). After political service in the province of Córdoba, he became president for a six-year term. Speculation, flagrant under his predecessor Julio A.
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. In particular, currency was stabilized. The boundary dispute with Chile was settled in 1902, and peace between the nations was symbolized in the Christ of the AndesChrist of the Andes,
statue of Jesus commemorating a series of peace and boundary treaties between Argentina and Chile. Dedicated Mar. 13, 1904, it stands in Uspallata Pass, high in the Andes, on the Argentine-Chilean boundary.
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 (dedicated Mar., 1904). Roca's foreign minister, Luis M. DragoDrago, Luis María
, 1859–1921, Argentine statesman, jurist, and writer on international law. As minister of foreign affairs under Julio A. Roca, he dispatched (Dec.
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, formulated the significant Drago Doctrine (1902).

Roca, Julio Argentino

 

Born July 17, 1843, in Tucu-mán; died Oct. 19, 1914, in Buenos Aires. Argentine state and political figure; general.

In 1878 and 1879, Roca led a punitive expedition against the Indians of the Patagonia region. During the years 1880–86 and 1898–1904, he served as Argentina’s president. These years saw the seizure of Indian lands by Argentine landowners and foreign capitalists and the militarization of the country. Roca facilitated the strengthening of the position of foreign, primarily British, capital within the country. In 1913 and 1914 he was ambassador to Brazil.

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