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a sport, a type of mountaineering. Rock climbing as an organized sport appeared for the first time in the USSR in the 1930’s. All-Union championships have been held since 1947, usually in the Crimea and at the Stolby Preserve near Krasnoiarsk, on cliffs 100 m high. At a less advanced level, competitions are held on cliffs of any height. The competition consists of two parts: an individual, unaided ascent and a team ascent of two climbers roped together and using special equipment. The organizational structure and training methods for rock climbing were developed by I. I. Antonovich, Honored Coach of the USSR.
Since 1966, rock climbing has been included in the Uniform All-Union Sports Classification. Climbers from Leningrad, Krasnoiarsk, and Tbilisi have been the most successful at championship meets. Since 1973, rock-climbing competitions have also been held in Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria, and elsewhere.