We can distinguish two main kinds of junk: Deliberate littering includes dead satellites, expended rocket stages
, and discarded parts such as covers and lens caps.
The rocket stage
was also largely painted white, which fits with the observed reflectance spectrum discussed above, as does the apparent cross-sectional area of 7.3 [m.sup.2].
from more than 600 launches now litter the wilderness regions of Khakasia, Altai and Tuva with more than 1,400 tons of "space junk."
On the other hand, re-entry vehicles and upper rocket stages
require advanced high-performance --and very high-cost--heat shields, he adds, able to withstand re-entry temperatures up to 1,800[degrees]C due to the orbital speed of 7km/s andmore.
Historically, spent rocket stages
have been jettisoned and lost at sea.
TheAaAaAeAeAaAeAeA object, which could be a remnant rocket stage
fro Apollo mission,AaAaAeAeAaAeAeA presents a unique opportunity for astronomers to t an artificial object.
As more than 100 position measurements piled up, Paul Chodas (NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory) concluded that J002E3 was probably a leftover Saturn V rocket stage
from one of the Apollo Moon missions--most likely Apollo 12, launched November 14, 1969.
The LCROSS spacecraft and a companion rocket stage
made twin impacts in the Cabeus crater on October 9 that created a plume of material from the bottom of a crater that has not seen sunlight in billions of years.
The LCROSS mission consisted of two pieces — an empty rocket stage
to carve into the lunar surface and a small spacecraft to measure the liquid that would fly off the surface.
In 1996 the High-Energy Transient Experiment was placed in orbit, but this X-ray satellite was unable to separate from its rocket stage
. A replacement, HETE 2, has been built at MIT from spare parts and is due to fly in October.
On the other hand, the LCROSS shepherding spacecraft was flying right behind the rocket stage
, thus it was able to peer down into the crater from overhead and see ejecta that did not get lofted very high.