in the puppet theater, a type of overhead puppet with wooden, metal, or bone rods that support and control the body, head, and limbs of the puppet. The rod-puppet has been known since ancient times in Java (Indonesia), China, and Japan; it later became widespread in other countries. In the Soviet theater it was first used and perfected by the artists N. Ia. Efimov and I. S. Efimov in 1918.

The design of the puppet and rod depends on the puppet’s costume and on the complexity of the gestures and movements that will be executed. With one hand the puppeteer manipulates the puppet’s body by a central rod, and with the other he operates the rods controlling the puppet’s arms. For complicated movements, the puppeteer is assisted by a second person; sometimes, as in Japan, rod-puppets are controlled by three or more persons. Rod-puppets range from 40 to 120 cm in height. Their versatility makes them adaptable for complex heroic, romantic, and satiric roles.


Obraztsov, S. Moiaprofessiia. Moscow, 1950.
Fedotov, A. Ia. Tekhnika teatra kukol. Moscow, 1953.
Fedotov, A. Ia. Sekrety teatra kukol. Moscow, 1963.
Kruzhok teatra kukol. Moscow, 1967.


References in periodicals archive ?
The fairy world included representation of the Indian boy with a rod-puppet manikin that had a cuddly Disneyesque look.
What makes Coulibaly unique in Mali, Arnoldi adds, is that he has recently incorporated string puppetry, which he studied in France, into his repertoire of traditional rod-puppet forms.
An exhibition, quizzes, workshops and a theater of rod-puppets will be presented.
The Austrian puppeteer Richard Teschner tended toward a practical application of Sundanese rod-puppets. While travelling in the Netherlands around 1911, he became interested in the figures of the Sundanese rod-puppets brought by the Dutch travellers from Java.