Lanciani, Rodolfo Amadeo (rōdôl`fō ämädĕ`ō länchä`nē), 1847?–1929, Italian archaeologist. He was an authority on the ancient topography of Ostia and Rome and discovered many important Roman antiquities. Lanciani was made director of excavations (1875) and professor of Roman topography at the Univ. of Rome (1878). Among his works in English are Wanderings in the Roman Campagna (1909) and Ancient and Modern Rome (1925).