Roger II


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Roger II,

c.1095–1154, count (1101–30) and first king (1130–54) of Sicily, son and successor of Roger IRoger I
(Roger Guiscard), c.1031–1101, Norman conqueror of Sicily; son of Tancred de Hauteville (see Normans). He went to Italy in 1058 to join his brother, Robert Guiscard, in conquering Apulia and Calabria from the Byzantines.
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. He conquered (1127) Apulia and Salerno and sided with the antipope Anacletus II against Pope Innocent IIInnocent II,
d. 1143, pope (1130–43), a Roman named Gregorio Papareschi; successor of Honorius II. He was created cardinal by Paschal II. On the death of Honorius II, a faction of the cardinals elected him pope.
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. In 1130, Anacletus crowned Roger king. Innocent rallied Holy Roman Emperor Lothair IILothair II,
also called Lothair III,
1075–1137, Holy Roman emperor (1133–37) and German king (1125–37); successor of Holy Roman Emperor Henry V.
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 and other allies against Roger but was defeated in 1139. Naples and Capua recognized Roger's sovereignty; Innocent was obliged to invest him with the lands that, for the next seven centuries, were to constitute the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily. Roger also conquered the coast of Africa from Tunis to Tripoli. He established a strong central administration and attempted to fuse the disparate ethnic groups in his kingdom. Prosperity returned to Sicily, and Roger's brilliant court at Palermo was a center of the arts, letters, and sciences. Roger was succeeded by his son, William I.

Bibliography

See E. Curtis, Roger of Sicily (1912, repr. 1973); J. J. Norwich, Kingdom in the Sun (1970).

Roger II

 

Born circa 1095; died Feb. 26, 1154, in Palermo. First king of Sicily; crowned in 1130.

A Norman, Roger was a son of the Sicilian count Roger I and a nephew of Robert Guiscard. After a long struggle with the papacy and the Norman barons, who were supported by the cities, he unified under his rule all the holdings of the Normans in Sicily and southern Italy. In 1139, Pope Innocent II was forced to recognize him as king. Striving for domination over the Mediterranean, Roger conquered Tripoli and Tunis by the end of the 1140’s. In the period 1147–48 he captured the island of Corfu from Byzantium and laid waste to Corinth and Thebes. Roger’s legislative acts (the Assizes of Ariano) formed the constitutional basis of the nascent centralized feudal state.

References in periodicals archive ?
Sicily had already been taken over by Roger II, and soon enough Mahdia and Tinnis would fall into oblivion--the latter is completely lost.
In the following chapter, "The Meteor Frederick II and the Bitter 'Chickpeas' of the French in Sicily", Arnaldi describes the discontent of Frederick Barbarossa with the Norman kingdom of Sicily and the ensuing politics of dynastic marriages that led to the wedding of Barbarossa's son, Henry, whom he named as his successor, with Constance of Hauteville, the daughter of Roger II. Henry and Constance's son, the famed Frederick II, is discussed at some length by Arnaldi who describes the cosmopolitanism of Frederick's court and stresses the process of identification of this king with Sicily despite the fact that he was the son of a Sicilian-Norman mother and a Swabian-German father.
Al-Idrisi's fame as a scholar brought him to the attention of Roger II, the Norman king of Sicily, who had assembled a group of philosophers, mathematicians, poets and geographers.
THE NEPHEW OF Robert Guiscard and son of Count Roger I of Sicily, Roger II succeeded to Sicily at the age of nine in 1105 and took personal control in 1112, when he was sixteen.
Roger II of Sicily is well known as the founder of the Norman kingdom of Sicily in the twelfth century.
William II's grandfather Roger II created the Cappella Palatina, much smaller than Monreale's cathedral but a foretaste of its golden narratives, as part of the Palazzo dei Normanni.
Daughter of Roger II, one of the Norman kings of Sicily, half-sister of William I of Sicily, beloved aunt of his son William II, cousin of a usurper named Tancredi, daughter-in-law of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, wife of Henry VI of Germany and mother of the brilliant but strange Frederick II, Constance, like most medieval women, is usually defined in terms of her relationships with men.
His early poems were dedicated to his patroness, Adelaide, the daughter of Raymond V, count of Toulouse, and wife of Roger II, Viscount of Beziers.
The first part understandably gives most attention to Roger II, count of Sicily, who acquired Apulia, Calabria, and other principalities on the Italian mainland and then reigned as king between 1130 and 1154.
Members of the public will also be given the opportunity to board the Jolly Roger II and participate in the trip to Geroskipou to retrieve the wines and witness the entire wine lifting process first hand.
Though it cannot be proven that Henry stopped off in Sicily on his return from crusade, Evergates suggests that this is likely and argues that Henry may have taken the idea for a combined residential, administrative, and spiritual campus from the magnificent works being undertaken in mid-century by the Norman king Roger II at Palermo.