Roger II


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Roger II,

c.1095–1154, count (1101–30) and first king (1130–54) of Sicily, son and successor of Roger IRoger I
(Roger Guiscard), c.1031–1101, Norman conqueror of Sicily; son of Tancred de Hauteville (see Normans). He went to Italy in 1058 to join his brother, Robert Guiscard, in conquering Apulia and Calabria from the Byzantines.
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. He conquered (1127) Apulia and Salerno and sided with the antipope Anacletus II against Pope Innocent IIInnocent II,
d. 1143, pope (1130–43), a Roman named Gregorio Papareschi; successor of Honorius II. He was created cardinal by Paschal II. On the death of Honorius II, a faction of the cardinals elected him pope.
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. In 1130, Anacletus crowned Roger king. Innocent rallied Holy Roman Emperor Lothair IILothair II,
also called Lothair III,
1075–1137, Holy Roman emperor (1133–37) and German king (1125–37); successor of Holy Roman Emperor Henry V.
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 and other allies against Roger but was defeated in 1139. Naples and Capua recognized Roger's sovereignty; Innocent was obliged to invest him with the lands that, for the next seven centuries, were to constitute the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily. Roger also conquered the coast of Africa from Tunis to Tripoli. He established a strong central administration and attempted to fuse the disparate ethnic groups in his kingdom. Prosperity returned to Sicily, and Roger's brilliant court at Palermo was a center of the arts, letters, and sciences. Roger was succeeded by his son, William I.

Bibliography

See E. Curtis, Roger of Sicily (1912, repr. 1973); J. J. Norwich, Kingdom in the Sun (1970).

Roger II

 

Born circa 1095; died Feb. 26, 1154, in Palermo. First king of Sicily; crowned in 1130.

A Norman, Roger was a son of the Sicilian count Roger I and a nephew of Robert Guiscard. After a long struggle with the papacy and the Norman barons, who were supported by the cities, he unified under his rule all the holdings of the Normans in Sicily and southern Italy. In 1139, Pope Innocent II was forced to recognize him as king. Striving for domination over the Mediterranean, Roger conquered Tripoli and Tunis by the end of the 1140’s. In the period 1147–48 he captured the island of Corfu from Byzantium and laid waste to Corinth and Thebes. Roger’s legislative acts (the Assizes of Ariano) formed the constitutional basis of the nascent centralized feudal state.

References in periodicals archive ?
Another important aspect of the reign of Roger II is the sponsorship of cultural pursuits for which Sicily would become famous in the medieval world.
Roger II died in February 1158 and was succeeded by his son William I.
William II's grandfather Roger II created the Cappella Palatina, much smaller than Monreale's cathedral but a foretaste of its golden narratives, as part of the Palazzo dei Normanni.
Daughter of Roger II, one of the Norman kings of Sicily, half-sister of William I of Sicily, beloved aunt of his son William II, cousin of a usurper named Tancredi, daughter-in-law of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, wife of Henry VI of Germany and mother of the brilliant but strange Frederick II, Constance, like most medieval women, is usually defined in terms of her relationships with men.
His early poems were dedicated to his patroness, Adelaide, the daughter of Raymond V, count of Toulouse, and wife of Roger II, Viscount of Beziers.
The first part understandably gives most attention to Roger II, count of Sicily, who acquired Apulia, Calabria, and other principalities on the Italian mainland and then reigned as king between 1130 and 1154.
Members of the public will also be given the opportunity to board the Jolly Roger II and participate in the trip to Geroskipou to retrieve the wines and witness the entire wine lifting process first hand.
Roger II of Sicily: A Ruler between East and West, by Hubert Houben, translated by Graham A.
The sentiments of the twelfth-century Koran reciter are infectious in this excellent overview of the reign of Roger II (1105-54) and the early history of the Kingdom of Sicily.
Conrad went to Constantinople -- where he allied himself with the Byzantine emperor; Louis VII returned to France via Sicily, where he concluded a pact with the Norman king, Roger II, against his German and Byzantine rivals.
Arabic documents ceased to be issued by the court during the reign of Adelaide and early years of that of her son, Roger II, but the names and careers of the Greek administrators have survived.