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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the working members (instruments) of a rolling mill. Rolls perform the basic rolling operation: the deformation (reduction) of the metal to give it the required dimensions and shape. The rolls consist of three elements: the barrel, two journals (trunnions), and the driving end (the “wobbler”). Rolls are divided into flattening and fluted types. Flattening rolls are used to roll sheets, plates and strips, and bars; the barrel of such a roll is cylindrical, slightly convex or concave. (Such rolls are also called smooth.) Fluted rolls are used to roll shaped (fluted) metal (circular or square cross sections, rails, I-beams, and so on); the grooves that correspond to the profile of the metal to be formed are made in the barrel surfaces of these rolls. The notches are called passes (the passes of two rolls form gauges), and the rolls are called grooved (gauging) rolls.

The basic dimensions of rolls (diameter and barrel length) depend on the gauge of the rolled product. The roll diameter for hot rolling is 250-300 mm (wire rolling) to 1,000-1,400 mm (bloom and slab rolling). For cold rolling, rolls are used with diameters from 5 mm (in 20-roll mills in foil rolling) to 600 mm (in quarto mills in the rolling of thin strips).

Cast-iron rolls with a Shore hardness of 35-45 (produced by casting in sand-clay molds) are the least expensive and are used in the hot rolling of soft strip steel; cast-iron rolls with a Shore hardness of 55-75 (produced by casting in metallic molds—chill molds) are used in sheet mills and in the finishing stands of section and wire mills; alloyed (with chromium, nickel, or molybdenum) cast-iron rolls with a Shore hardness of 40-70 are used in section rail and structural and thin-sheet hot-rolling mills; and steel rolls are used in blooming mills, slabbing mills, reduction stands of section mills and in cold-rolling mills. The working rolls of small multiple-roll mills, as well as flatting mills for the spreading of high-strength steel wire, are produced from ceramic hard tungsten-carbide alloys (with cobalt added); the wear resistance of such rolls is 30-50 times greater than that of steel alloyed rolls. Wear-resistant and strong rolls for section and sheet rolling are obtained by metal surfacing with hard and superhard alloys.

Worn rolls are restored by returning on roll-turning lathes or regrinding (for sheet-mill rolls) on roll-grinding lathes.


Tselikov, A. I., and V. V. Smirnov. Prokatnye stany. Moscow, 1958.
Korolev, A. A. Mekhanicheskoe oborudovanie prokatnykh tsekhov, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1965.




the operating members of crushing, flour-milling, punching, and other machines in the form of smooth or grooved rolls, cylinders, or cones (generally rotating in different directions) that process the material passing between them; they include forging rolls, crushing rolls, and others.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
This man had to roll the ball, to watch the stakes as they were laid down, to gather them off the colour which lost, to pay those who won, to do it all with the utmost dispatch, to roll the ball again, and to keep this game perpetually alive.
And when all was done, I gave up like a woman and rolled upon the deck in the agony of exhaustion.
I take another step forward, and slip on the shining face of a black steward, who lies rolled in a blanket on the floor.
She rolled and rolled with an awful dislodging jerk and that dizzily fast sweep of her masts on every swing.
A temporary easement of the Arangi's rolling gave him his opportunity, so that his forefeet were over the high combing of the companion when the next big roll came.
The crowd had rolled back, and were now huddled together nearly at the extremity of the street, while the soldiers had advanced no more than a third of its length.
"As roll a thousand waves to the rocks, so Swaran's host came on.
Every appearance it had then presented, bore the expression of being swelled; and the height to which the breakers rose, and, looking over one another, bore one another down, and rolled in, in interminable hosts, was most appalling.
Several times Condon attempted to draw the lad into a card game; but his victim was not interested, and the black looks of several of the other men passengers decided the American to find other means of transferring the boy's bank roll to his own pocket.
His face was purple, his eyes were rolled back so that only the whites were seen, and on his bare legs and arms which were still red, the veins stood out like cords.
He rolled his knotty eyes from side to side, taking a first wondering view of the world in which he had now so important an existence.
The billows rolled dreadfully high: higher even than the tops of houses.