Roman Numerals

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Roman Numerals

the numerals of the ancient Romans. The Roman numeral system makes use of special symbols for powers of the base ten; for example, I = 1, × = 10, C = 100, and M = 1,000. Symbols also exist for halves of certain decimal powers: V = 5, L = 50, and D = 500. The natural numbers are written by means of the repetition of these numerals. If a larger numeral stands before a smaller one, the additive principle applies—that is, the numbers represented by the two numerals are added together. If a smaller numeral precedes a larger one, the subtractive principle applies—the smaller number is subtracted from the larger. The subtractive principle is made use of only to avoid repeating the same numeral four times. For example, I, X, and C are placed before X, C, and M, respectively, to signify 9, 90, and 900; when I, X, and C stand before V, L, and D, respectively, the numbers symbolized are 4, 40, and 400. Some examples of the expression of numbers in this system follow: VI = 5 + 1 = 6, IV = 5 – 1 = 4 (instead of IIII), XIX = 10 + 10 – 1 = 19 (instead of XVIIII), XL = 50 – 10 = 40 (instead of XXXX), and XXXIII = 10 + 10 + 10 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 33.

The Roman numeral system is very inconvenient for arithmetic operations with multidigit numbers. It is used today only in a few special cases. For example, it is occasionally used to designate centuries (the XVth century is the 15th century), years of the Common Era (MCMLXXV is the year 1975), months in dates (the Russian expression 1.V.1975 means May 1, 1975), ordinal numbers, and derivatives whose order is low but greater than three (such as in yIV and y v).

References in periodicals archive ?
22 [tweeentwintig] the number-name is the sum of its Roman numbers (setting W = VV)
The Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency in Swansea says the hit Russell Crowe movie has sparked a flurry of interest in Roman numbers.
The words Epluribus unum appear on one-dollar bills, as well as on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C., where we also find Annuit Coeptis, Novus Ordo Seclorum, and the date MDCCLXXVI (1776) in Roman numbers. Many other examples may be quoted, but none of them shows any attempt to replace American English with classical Latin in a hypothetical Capitalist International.
The Guide for overcoming obsessions and compulsions using mindfulness and cognitive behavioral therapy, by Jon Hershfield and Tom Corboy, ISBN 978-1608828784, numbering 220 pages, with eight pages numbered with Roman numbers and two nienumerowanymi parties at the beginning of the book, and a translation of the text on cover of the book, along with the transfer of the whole of property copyrights to the Employer, commissioned by the Jagiellonian University.
Rola's wrist tattoo consisted of Roman numbers, which according to Al Jaras Magazine represent the date of birth of her late brother Georges, whom she lost over 18 years ago.
Now it supports Roman numbers style for heading in PDF documents and allows adding document level JavaScript.
Greek texts have been translated into English and Roman numbers avoided because, the author woefully admits, modern students here and in the Commonwealth and the U.S.
Pop Quiz II shows Roman numbers designating 500 (D) and 50 (L) for a total of..
Equipped with eight selectable month and day wheel languages, including English, Spanish, French, Numeric, and Roman numbers, Acroprint 175 adjusts to daylight savings time and can be set to display a standard 12-hour am/pm time or 24-hour military time.

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