Roman Numerals

(redirected from Roman numeral)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.
Related to Roman numeral: Arabic numeral

Roman Numerals

 

the numerals of the ancient Romans. The Roman numeral system makes use of special symbols for powers of the base ten; for example, I = 1, × = 10, C = 100, and M = 1,000. Symbols also exist for halves of certain decimal powers: V = 5, L = 50, and D = 500. The natural numbers are written by means of the repetition of these numerals. If a larger numeral stands before a smaller one, the additive principle applies—that is, the numbers represented by the two numerals are added together. If a smaller numeral precedes a larger one, the subtractive principle applies—the smaller number is subtracted from the larger. The subtractive principle is made use of only to avoid repeating the same numeral four times. For example, I, X, and C are placed before X, C, and M, respectively, to signify 9, 90, and 900; when I, X, and C stand before V, L, and D, respectively, the numbers symbolized are 4, 40, and 400. Some examples of the expression of numbers in this system follow: VI = 5 + 1 = 6, IV = 5 – 1 = 4 (instead of IIII), XIX = 10 + 10 – 1 = 19 (instead of XVIIII), XL = 50 – 10 = 40 (instead of XXXX), and XXXIII = 10 + 10 + 10 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 33.

The Roman numeral system is very inconvenient for arithmetic operations with multidigit numbers. It is used today only in a few special cases. For example, it is occasionally used to designate centuries (the XVth century is the 15th century), years of the Common Era (MCMLXXV is the year 1975), months in dates (the Russian expression 1.V.1975 means May 1, 1975), ordinal numbers, and derivatives whose order is low but greater than three (such as in yIV and y v).

References in periodicals archive ?
In the second year of training, the actor progresses to an intermediate level in all the component areas of the Music Skills unit: 1) aural progresses into sight-singing and part singing; 2) music theory deals with chord knowledge and uses both contemporary chord notation and Roman numerals; 3) keyboard involves playing a melody line and being able to accompany this with chords in the left hand (called "method A" playing).
Under the clear viewing conditions used in this study, the influence of subjects' schematic knowledge of the Roman numeral system was not strong enough to affect their actual perception of the clock in the copy condition (although it is clearly possible that such an influence might be demonstrated under different viewing conditions).
This clock is slightly larger and has Roman numerals and a bevelled rim with more than a hint of days gone by.
Nicols said there is a way to convert 99,999 to a smaller Roman numeral.
MIMI is a one-in-a-million name: each letter is a Roman numeral (M=1000, I=1), and if the four values of the Roman numeral letters are multiplied together the product is one million.
New York, July 6 (ANI): Angelina Jolie has added two new swirl tattoos to around old Roman numeral tattoo on her left arm.
The gold wrist watch has a distinctive white hexagonal face with a slim-fit bracelet while the two Roman numeral gold pocket watches are attached to gold chain fobs.
What is the Roman numeral for one thousand (mille)?
FOR a chance to win, all you have to do is tell us: What is the Roman numeral for one thousand (mille)?
The Spice Girl has had a mysterious script, right, inked on her right wrist under her Roman numeral design.
How is the number ten written in Roman numerals? 9.