Roman Province

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Province, Roman

 

(in Latin provincia), any of the territories outside of Italy that were subordinate to ancient Rome. The provinces were administered by Roman governors (proconsuls or propraetors), who embodied the military, administrative, and juridical power of Rome.

The first Roman provinces were the island of Sicily (from 241 B.C.) and the islands of Sardinia and Corsica (from 227 B.C.). By the end of the republican period, there were approximately 20 provinces, and during the imperial period, approximately 50. During the republican period, the provinces were regarded as the domain of the Roman people, and a considerable portion of the land was taken from the local population and handed over to Roman colonists. In addition, inhabitants of the provinces were obligated to maintain Roman governors and troops. Publicans, who bid at auctions for the right to collect taxes in the provinces, unrestrainedly ruined the local population. A policy of forced romanization was carried out. Roman domination provoked protests in the provinces, which at times led to revolts, such as those of the Lusitanians, Celtiberians, and other Spanish tribes during the second and first centuries B.C. and the revolt led by Bar Kochba in Judea.

The basis for provincial policy during the empire was laid down by Julius Caesar, who won over the provincial upper class by granting to entire communities and certain individuals the rights of Roman or Latin citizenship. Caesar also admitted citizens from the provinces to the Senate and enacted a law (59 B.C.) against extortion in the provinces. In fact, from the time of Augustus, at the end of the first century B.C., all the provinces came more and more under the control of the emperor, despite the division, in 27 B.C., into senatorial and imperial provinces. The gradual process of equalization between Italy proper and the Roman provinces, a process which reflected the interests of the empire’s slaveholding aristocracy, found expression in the edict of the emperor Caracalla (A.D. 212), according to which all free inhabitants of the empire received the rights of Roman citizenship. The process culminated in the administrative reform of the emperor Diocletian (third century A.D.), according to which the entire Roman empire, including Italy, was divided into administrative units. The borders of these new provinces did not coincide with those of the former provinces.

I. L. MAIAK

References in classic literature ?
All South Britain became a Roman province, and the people paid tribute or taxes to the Roman Emperor.
It was in much the same way that Britain was a Roman province. And so our literature was never Latin.
to the beginning of the fifth, the island was a Roman province, with Latin as the language of the ruling class of Roman immigrants, who introduced Roman civilization and later on Christianity, to the Britons of the towns and plains.
The results of studies that are to be conducted on the shipwreck are expected to shed new light on the breadth and scale of the island's trade relations with the rest of the Roman provinces in the eastern Mediterranean.
The findings result from a research collaboration headed by Philipp Stockhammer of the Institute of Pre- and Protohistoric Archaeology and Archaeology of the Roman Provinces of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat MEaA-nchen.
Specialized Medical Instruments from Bulgaria in the Context of Finds from Other Roman Provinces (I-IV C AD).
Therefore he considers the two Roman provinces together as he investigates how local communities defined and identified themselves and fostered a sense of belonging together, how interactions with other provincial communities or with "the Roman" reinforced these feelings of cohesiveness, the role that social memory of the local past played in these identities and how these memories were articulated, and similar issues.
For example, he emphasized the fact that many Roman provinces were settled by the Germanic tribes, which in his eyes meant that they were under a significant pressure from the provincial Roman population and may have adapted to the latter's traditions of power and cultural paradigms.
Half the world was subdivided into a rectilinear grid of Roman provinces dotted with walled cities, among them Constantinople, Carthage and Alexandria.
CRISTINA-GEORGETA ALEXANDRESCU (ed.), Cult and votive monuments in the Roman Provinces, Proceedings of the 13th International Colloquium on Roman Provincial Art (Bucharest, Alba Iulia, Constanta, 27th May--3rd June 2013--within the framework of Corpus Signorum Imperii Romani), Mega Publishing House, 2015.
Peoples of Roman provinces were usually given full citizenship.
Press, 1971) and diverse chapters in Arthur Hugh Martin's magisterial Cities of the Eastern Roman Provinces, 2nd ed.