Romanism


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Romanism

 

a school of 16th-century Netherlandish art. Representatives of the movement included the following painters and engravers: Jan Gossaert (the founder of romanism), Barnaert van Orley, Maerten van Heemskerck, Jan van Scorel, Frans Floris, and Lucas van Leyden.

Influenced by the art of the Italian Renaissance, the roman-ists used subjects (classical mythology, nudes) and renderings of anatomy and perspective that were new to Netherlandish art. They strengthened humanist tendencies in art but, unable to combine Italian Renaissance and Old Dutch traditions organically, often succumbed to eclecticism.

REFERENCES

Fekhner, E. lu. Niderlandskaia zhivopis: XVI v. Leningrad, 1949.
Vipper, B. R. Stanovlenie realizma ν gollandskoi zhivopisi XVII veka. Moscow, 1957.
Puyvelde, L. van. La Peinture flamande au siècle de Bosch et Breughel. Paris, 1962.
References in periodicals archive ?
Romanism has ever tended to connect itself with absolutism, despotism, or irresponsible government.
"From Romanism to Race: Anglo-American Liberties in Uncle Tom's Cabin." Prospectus 25 (2000): 229-268.
Britons on both sides of the Atlantic came to understand that their religious and civil liberties were bound together--and threatened--by any encroachment of Romanism, priestcraft and arbitrary government.
Victorian controversialists disseminated the image of Romanism as a monstrous and sexually transgressive devourer of British national independence in tandem with the escalating debate over the Real Presence of the Eucharist, precisely the question of whether the Communion meal entails the actual consumption of the Body and Blood of Christ.
Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion: The Making of a President, 1884.
Blaine in 1888, after one of his supporters criticized the Democrats as the party of "Rum, Romanism and Rebellion."
For a long time the state capitalists and political hacks who controlled the Republican Party dominated American politics by an appeal to respectability against the Evil Party of "Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion"--the desire for respectable conformity being the predominant American characteristic, according to Tocqueville in the 19th century and Solzhenitsyn in the 20th.
In countries like Italy and Spain, the sadness, Romanism, divorce was not legal until recently.
In the scheme of things, Alexander's complaints pale in comparison to, for instance, the charges levied against the Democratic Party during the 1884 presidential election (then, Dems were the party of "Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion").
Wright insists that her stories are based "firmly on facts" (1868, 3) and that, with Romanism, "one need not deal in fiction" (1870, 5).
A typical example is Arthur Schlesinger Sr.'s The American As Reformer, published in 1951, with its closing declaration that Americans "have never regarded democracy as a finished product but something to keep on building." This sunny view would have come as a surprise to Catholic immigrants, the chief target of the Know-Nothings' illiberal crusade for "War to the hilt, on political Romanism." That sure looked like a reform movement: It was an effort to refashion society, advanced with the rhetoric of republican values, and its supporters often embraced more conventionally progressive movements of the reform period as well, such as the fight against slavery.