Romanus


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Romanus

 

the name of a number of Byzantine emperors.

Romanus I Lecapenus

Died June 15, 948, on the island of Prote. Emperor from 920 to 944.

The son of Armenian peasants. Romanus rose to the rank of commander of the imperial fleet. In 919 he became regent during the minority of Emperor Constantine VII, to whom in that same year he married off his daughter. In 920, Romanus became coruler with the emperor, having in actuality usurped all the power.

Romanus represented the interests of the upper stratum of the capital’s officials. He sought to prevent the taking of lands from the free peasants, who were the principal taxpayers and were subject to military service for the state (amendments of 934 and 943). He waged war against Bulgaria, and after the death of the Bulgarian tsar Simeon (927) he extended Byzantine influence to Bulgaria and subordinated the Serbian lands. Romanus strengthened the army and thus facilitated Byzantium’s victories in wars against the Arabs. In 924 an Arab fleet was destroyed and Byzantine domination was established in the Aegean Sea. The city of Melitene was regained from the Arabs in 934, and in the early 940’s, Martyropolis, Dara, Amida, and Ni-sibis were reconquered. In 941, Romanus repulsed an attack on Byzantium by Prince Igor of Kiev, and in 944 he concluded a peace treaty with Rus’. Late in 944, Romanus was deposed by his sons. He died in exile.

REFERENCE

Runciman, S. The Emperor Romanus Lecapenus and His Reign. Cambridge, 1963.
Romanus IV Diogenes. Died in the summer of 1072. Emperor from 1068 to 1071.
Romanus IV belonged to the Cappadocian aristocracy. After the death of Emperor Constantine X Ducas (1067), he organized a plot against Eudocia, Constantine X’s widow. He was seized, brought to Constantinople, and sentenced to death. After being pardoned by Eudocia, he obtained the post of commander in chief. He subsequently married Eudocia and became emperor.
Romanus represented the interests of the military feudal aristocracy. He was faced with strong opposition from the upper stratum of the officials, headed by Michael Ducas, son of Constantine X. Romanus successfully waged war against the attacking Seljuks, but on Aug. 19, 1071, he was defeated by Sultan Alp Apslan near Manzikert. He was taken prisoner but was released on condition that he pay an annual tribute. In October 1071 he was deposed. Romanus attempted to regain the throne, but the Ducas group seized and blinded him.

G. G. LITAVRIN

References in periodicals archive ?
As with the Byzantine Romanus the Melode and the Wesleys, he is credited with innumerable compositions, the securest being the four certified by the expert Augustine: Eternal Creator of Things; God the Creator of All; Now the Third Hour Cometh; Thou Who Rulest Israel.
Derek and his wife Jane were living in rural Berkshire, from where he had a huge catchment area of schools he could visit, and show the children his hand-made Roman armour, and it developed into quite a significant business, called Derekspqr (standing for senatus populus que romanus, or by order of senate and the people of Rome), which handled his school work as well as appearing at museums and tourist attractions in the vicinity.
Porque entre las cosas que resucitan en estos momentos estan las viejas e inquietantes prodecias de San Malaquias, el benedictino irlandes (1094-1148), que preven, tras del pontificado de Woytila, el del "Papa negro" (y que no sera necesariamente el nigeriano que esta entre los finalistas) cuya divisa sera "De la Gloria del Olivo" y bajo cuyo reinado comenzaran las grandes conmociones que terminaran con su sucesor, el ultimo papa, Petrus Romanus que vera la desolacion de la cuidad eterna (quiza destruida por una atomica israeli) y el gran cambio de la Iglesia.
IN the heyday of empire Palmerston declared: "As the Roman in days of old held himself free from indignity when he could say "civis Romanus sum" (I am a Roman citizen), so also a British subject, in whatever land he may be, shall feel confident that the watchful eye and the strong arm of England will protect him against injustice and wrong."
With: Brent Smith, Lynn Evans, Zeke Rippy, Mary Woronov, Bob Romanus, Mickey Cottrell.
Palmerston, the British foreign secretary, in the spirit of his later civis Romanus speech associated with the well-known Don Pacifico incident, took up the cause of the two traders and over the next two years sought to gain compensation for their losses.
Manuscripts of both poems are in the Vatican library: Boccabella (also known as Paulus Aemilius Romanus), Vat.
Romanus, Charles F., and Riley Sutherland, Stilwell's Command Problems.
Fresh divisions have again rocked the Legio Maria church after a section of followers rejected a purported "handshake" between leaders of two warring factions who have not been seeing eye to eye for over a decade.Legio Maria, an indigenous African church popular in some parts of Nyanza and Western regions has had two leaders, both claiming to be the bona fide popes of the church Pope Romanus Ong'ombe and Pope Raphael Adika.
Two members, Hon Obinna Emenaka, and a pro-Maduagwu lawmaker who recently suffered a vehicle accident, however, engaged a pro Uzoezie lawmaker, Romanus Obi, in a fight but members rallied round to stop the fight.
Romanus Amerio in Iota Unum, his book on the Second Vatican Council, describes how, in the wake of the Council, there was a dramatic shift in the Curia from prescription to advising.
Asi, no recurrira a lo dispuesto por el canon citado: Si contingat ut Romanus Pontifex muneri suo renuntiet, ad validitatem requiritur ut renuntiatio libere fiat et rite manifestetur, non veto ut a quopiam acceptetur, cuya traduccion es: "Si el Romano Pontifice renuncia a su oficio, se requiere para la validez que la renuncia sea libre y se manifieste formalmente, pero no que sea aceptada por nadie".