Dental Caries

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dental caries

[¦dent·əl ′kar·ēz]
(medicine)

Dental Caries

 

an affection of the solid tissues of the teeth manifested by their gradual destruction (enamel, dentin, cemen-tum) and the formation of cavities.

The causes of dental caries are varied and have not been completely determined. According to the chemical-parasitic theory, it results from the mineral part of the teeth being dissolved by acids formed in the mouth during the breakdown of the carbohydrates in food; the organic portion of the teeth is subsequently decomposed by microbes. Dental caries may also develop without the action of microbes as a result of metabolic disturbances in the dental tissues. Diet is an important factor in the origin of dental caries. Dental caries was induced experimentally by giving animals food containing a large quantity of sugar. In localities where the drinking water is low in fluorine, the incidence of dental caries is particularly high. The individual enzyme peculiarities of the body, diseases, a mother’s diet during pregnancy, improper artificial feeding of infants, and rickets also affect the incidence of dental caries.

Caries generally affects the teeth of the upper jaw, especially the fifth milk and first molar teech. The carious process is usually concentrated near natural depressions on the tooth surface and on the contiguous surfaces in the neck of a tooth (region next to the gum). The disease starts with the formation of a defect in the enamel or neck part of the cementum projecting freely into the mouth. On reaching the dentin, the process spreads wide and deep, forming a carious cavity. Once started, the process does not stop but gradually progresses. The enamel loses its luster and transparency at the site of dental caries, and pigmentation and roughness appear. When the integrity of the enamel is impaired, pain is felt on eating sweet, acid, salty, hot, or cold food. Dental caries is usually chronic. Acute dental caries is generally found in young people, and it is often due to a disturbance of internal secretion.

Treatment consists in restoration of the anatomical structure and function of the tooth by filling it. The procedure involves removal of the soft dentin and formation of a suitable cavity to hold the filling.

Prevention consists in taking action to increase tooth resistance to caries (providing the body with the essential salts, chiefly calcium and phosphorus, and vitamin D) during formation and mineralization of the teeth (from the fourth to fifth month of intrauterine development to age 11 years). After the teeth erupt prevention consists in proper diet and oral hygiene.

REFERENCES

Rukovodstvo po terapevticheskoi stomatologii.Moscow, 1967.
Pilz, W., C. Plathner, and H. Taatz. Grundlagen der Kariologie undEndodontie. Leipzig, 1969.

V. N. ISAEV

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(39,40) It was also found to be most effective in preventing new and arresting current root caries when applied annually.
The goal of this treatment to resolve the esthetic problem treat dentinal hypersensitivity and prevent root caries along with that regeneration of attachment apparatus like bone and periodontal ligament to restore complete health of the teeth.
Root caries prevalence in Norwegian adult dental patients population.
Root caries was present in 13% (n = 32) of examined incisors (Table 4).
Systematic reviews of clinical trials in children and senior populations have provided evidence of SDF effectively arresting enamel, dentinal and root caries when applied in conjunction with preventive oral health programs.
Third molars are the most often congenitally absent and impacted teeth in the dental arch; and account for 98% of all the impacted teeth.15,16,17 Pathological conditions like dental caries, root caries, apical lesions, osteomyelitis, pericoronitis, cysts and malignancies can co-exist with the impacted teeth.
Tooth loss, difficulty or pain on eating, loss of taste sensation, increased root caries, periodontal disease, increased denture-related lesions, and oral cancer are just some of the problems experienced by this cohort.
Effect of ozone on the oral microbiota and clinical severity of primary root caries. Am J Dent.
In 1 study, the combination of annual application of silver with oral hygiene instruction every 6 months resulted in arrested root caries in a group of community-dwelling elderly adults.
The application of Ozone therapy in the treatment of dental caries is extensively studied and many studies have proved its effectiveness in the treatment of pit and fissure caries, root caries and interproximal caries.
To treat teeth with deep cervical root fracture and deep cervical root caries that are difficult to treat conservatively, the surgical extrusion technique has been proposed, with predictable short- and long term results.