soft systems methodology

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soft systems methodology

formulated by Peter Checkland in the 1970s as a method of coming to terms with 'soft’ or ill-defined organizational problem contexts. The approach differs from traditonal management-oriented methods by virtue of its emphasis on learning, appreciative understanding and the recognition of different and competing ‘world views’. Originally the method was promoted as a 7-stage iterative model that could be used to explore problem contexts encouraging iteration of polemical debate until a universal world view or ‘accommodation of interests’ could be achieved. SYSTEMS THEORY was used extensively in the original formulation; concentrating on emergent properties and holism rather than the reductionist techniques found in other approaches. In 1992 the methodology was reformulated in the face of its critics (Flood, Jackson & Keys 1990 et al) in order to focus more on learning and process, rather than formal systems theory
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Going back to the root definition, "comm-unity" is "a group of people living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in common." It is the "web of mutuality," as Martin Luther King once put it, and thus it should be a safe place.
Stage 3: Root Definitions: This stage involves naming the relevant systems also termed as giving the root definition of the relevant systems.
As a guide to the construction of root definitions, Checkland (1981) provides the CATWOE elements by which he means that a complete root definition should identify the Customers (C), the Actors (A), the Transformation (T), Weltanshauung ("world view") (W), the Owners (O) and the Environment (E).
There should be no link between the root definition and the organization in the real world at this stage.
This will lift and lengthen your lashes, giving root definition and separating them at the same time.
That is also the root definition of "create"--to bring into existence.
Political and cultural feasibility criteria are applied at the root definition stage.
* T: transformation (the core of the root definition the transformation carried out by the system);
Going back to its root definition, true democracy means that the government works "of the people," "by the people" and "for the people." Here we have to be fully aware of the concept and its implications.
SSM-IA heavily uses the root definition of SSM (Checkland, 1981; Checkland and Scholes, 1990).
These models contain the structured activities that are required to have a system such as the ones described by a root definition (Checkland, 1981).
The HAS is defined using a root definition of the format 'a system to do P by Q in order to achieve R' (Checkland and Scholes, 1999).