Rosebery, Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th earl of


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Rosebery, Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th earl of

(rōz`bərē), 1847–1929, British statesman. He succeeded his grandfather as earl in 1868. A Liberal, Rosebery was undersecretary for home affairs (1881–83), entered the cabinet as lord privy seal (1885), and served (1886, 1892–94) as foreign secretary. His imperialist views brought him into frequent conflict with the prime minister, William Gladstone, but he was able to secure the establishment of a British protectorate in Uganda. When Gladstone retired in 1894, it was expected that Sir William HarcourtHarcourt, Sir William George Granville Venables Vernon,
1827–1904, English statesman. A brilliant parliamentarian and a supporter of Gladstone, he entered Parliament in 1868 and had a notable career as solicitor general (1873–74), home secretary (1880–85), and
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 would succeed him, but Queen VictoriaVictoria
(Alexandrina Victoria) , 1819–1901, queen of Great Britain and Ireland (1837–1901) and empress of India (1876–1901). She was the daughter of Edward, duke of Kent (fourth son of George III), and Princess Mary Louise Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.
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 called on Rosebery to become prime minister. That caused a split in the Liberal party, and Rosebery was forced to resign in 1895. He became the leader of the Liberal Imperialist division of the party, but retired from politics in 1905 when Henry Campbell-Bannerman was chosen as Liberal prime minister. He wrote a number of historical monographs, including William Pitt (1891), Napoleon: The Last Phase (1900), and Chatham (1910).

Bibliography

See biographies by his son-in-law, the 1st marquess of Crewe (1931), and R. R. James (1963).