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Rostov(rŏ`stŏv, Rus. rəstôf`), city (1989 pop. 35,700), E European Russia, on Lake Nero. It is a road and rail junction and has food-processing and flax-spinning plants. Linen is produced, and an old enamel-painting craft is still practiced. One of Russia's oldest cities, Rostov has been known since 862. It became the capital of the Rostov-Suzdal principality in 1207, was annexed by the grand duchy of Moscow in 1474, was made the seat of an Orthodox metropolitan in 1587, and served as an important commercial center from the 16th to 19th cent. Rostov's ancient kremlin contains the Uspenski Cathedral and other splendid 13th-century churches with precious murals. The palace of the metropolitan is now a museum. The city was also known as Rostov-Veliki (Great Rostov) and Rostov-Yaroslavski.
(also Rostov-Iaroslavskii; from the 12th to the 17th century, Rostov Velikii), a city under oblast jurisdiction, administrative center of Rostov Raion, Yaroslavl Oblast, RSFSR. Rostov is situated on the northwestern shore of Lake Nero, 58 km southwest of Yaroslavl. The city has a railroad station on the Moscow-Yaroslavl line and is the junction of several highways.
Rostov is first mentioned in the chronicles under the year 862. In the tenth century it was the capital of the Rostov-Suzdal’ principality; from the 11th to the early 13th century, it was part of the Vladimir-Suzdal’ principality. In 1207 it became the capital of the Rostov principality, which was one of the centers for the development of the Russian national state in northeastern Rus’. In 1238, Rostov was captured by the Mongol Tatars. In 1474 it became part of the Muscovite state. From 1589 to 1788, Rostov was the residence of the metropolitan. In 1777 the city became a district capital of the Yaroslavl namestnichestvo (vicegerency), and in 1796 a district capital of Yaroslavl Province. The Rostov trade fair, which arose in the 17th century, became the third largest in Russia in volume of trade by the first half of the 19th century (after the Nizhny Novgorod and Irbit fairs). In the 19th century, Rostov was the center of Russian vegetable farming. In 1870 the city was linked by rail to Moscow and Yaroslavl. Soviet power was established in the city on Dec. 18(31), 1917.
The city’s principal enterprises—the Rol’ma flax-spinning mill, a coffee and chicory factory, and a molasses plant—date to the period between 1870 and 1890 and have undergone reconstruction during the Soviet years. Other enterprises include a clothing factory and a factory producing automotive parts for the motor plant in Yaroslavl. There is an agricultural technicum and a pedagogical school.
As one of the oldest Russian cities, with numerous architectural monuments, Rostov is a major center for tourism, including foreign tourism. The international youth camp Rostov Velikii has been in operation since 1968. In 1970, Rostov was declared a national preserve.
The city’s plan (1779) is regular, constructed according to a radial-semicircular system. The main streets converge on the city’s historical center, which includes the Uspenskii Cathedral (stone, c. 1589; frescoes, 1659, 1670, S. Dmitriev, I. Vladimirov, V. Anan’in, and K. Anan’in) with a separate bell tower having 13 bells (1680’s), market stalls, which provide a good example of classicism (1830, architect A. I. Mel’nikov), and the kremlin complex of buildings (until the 19th century called the Bishop’s House, 1670–83), which is surrounded by massive walls with towers (mostly 17th century, construction completed in the 18th century). A complex of houses and administrative and religious buildings has also been preserved; the main ones surround the kremlin’s central square and are connected by arched passages. Included here are the Voskresenie Church (1670; frescoes, 1675, attributed to D. Grigor’ev, and G. Nikitin) and the Church of John the Evangelist (1683; frescoes, 1683), both of which are built over the kremlin gates. There is also the Spas na Seniakh Church (1675; frescoes, 1670’s, D. Stepanov, I. Karpov, and F. Karpov), the Church of St. Gregory (1680), and the Odigitriia Church (1698). There are princely tower rooms (16th and 17th centuries) and chambers that include the White Palace (1672, area of the hall, 300 sq m), the Red Palace (1672–80), and the Ierarshaia Palace (17th century). Outside the kremlin, there are churches built in the 16th to 19th centuries, including the Voznesenie Church (of Isidor Blazhennyi, 1566; architect Andrei Maloi) and the Spas na Torgu Church (Ru-zhnaia; 1685–90). There are also stone houses dating from the late 18th and early 19th centuries that were built as model projects.
The Monastery of Avraam (16th–19th centuries) is situated on Lake Nero in the city’s northeastern outskirts; the Monastery of Iako (17th–19th centuries) in the southwestern outskirts is also on the lake. During the Soviet period there has been extensive restoration (architects V. S. Banige, V. V. Gnedovskii). In 1959, the Rostov-Iaroslavskii Museum and Preserve of Architecture and Art was organized to replace the city’s museum of local lore. Present construction is carried out with due consideration for the architectural monuments. Since the 18th century, Rostov has had a tradition of painting involving enamel on copper (up to 1840, icons and religious scenes; later, secular portraits and landscapes). In the Soviet era, the Rostovskaia Finift’ Factory makes mainly ornaments and souvenirs.
REFERENCESTitov, A. A. Rostov-Velikii Iaroslavskoi gubernii i ego sviatyni. Moscow, 1909. (Tourist guide.)
Ivanov, V. N. Rostov Velikii: Uglich. Moscow, 1964.
Dorosh, E. Ia. Slovo o Rostove Velikom. Moscow, 1965.
Rostovskii kreml’. Moscow, 1967. (Photograph album; text by E. Dorosh.)
Tiunina, M. N. Rostov Velikii: Putevoditel’ po gorodu i ego okrestnostiam. [Iaroslavf, 1969.]
Kovalev, I. A. Rostov Iaroslavskii. Moscow, 1971.