(in Russian, propashnye kul’tury), crops whose normal growth and development require large feeding areas and interrow tillage:
Row crops include (1) grains (corn, buckwheat, millet, beans), (2) commercial crops (sugar beets, cotton, sunflowers, tobacco), (3) vegetables (cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers, beets, carrots), and (4) forage crops (root crops, feed cabbage, potatoes). Row crops are sown or seedlings are set out by the widerow, square, or checkrow planting method, with 60–90 cm between the rows. Row-crop farming is intensive; in order to obtain high yields, organic and mineral fertilizers are applied in quantities greater than for ordinary drill seeding.
Row crops are generally grown on irrigated land, and some, such as cotton, can be grown only under irrigation. During the growing season, the interrow spaces are hoed two to four times and the rows are weeded to conserve moisture and improve aeration. As a result, the soil’s microbiological activity increases and mobilization of nutrients is intensified. Row crops are valuable precursors of spring grain crops, flax, and hemp. The beneficial effect of row crops extends to the second crop.