Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra

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Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra,

founded 1888, one of the world's foremost orchestras. It performs at the Royal Concertbegouw [concert building], Amsterdam, Netherlands, designed by Adolf Leonard van Gendt; the main hall is considered one of the world's acoustically outstanding venues. The orchestra's first conductor was Willem Kes. Willem MengelbergMengelberg, Willem
(Josef Willem Mengelberg) , 1871–1951, Dutch conductor. Conductor of the Amsterdam Concertgebouw Orchestra (1895–1945), he was noted for interpretations of Mahler and Richard Strauss, whose Ein Heldenleben is dedicated to him.
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, who succeeded Kes in 1895 and served until 1945, established the orchestra's international reputation. Other conductors who have been closely associated with the orchestra include Pierre MonteuxMonteux, Pierre
, 1875–1964, French-American conductor, studied at the Paris Conservatory. As conductor (1911–14) of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes, he directed the premieres of ballets by Stravinsky, Ravel, and Debussy.
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, Bruno WalterWalter, Bruno,
1876–1962, German-American conductor, b. Berlin as Bruno Walter Schlesinger. Walter studied at the Stern Conservatory in Berlin. After he had conducted in several German cities, Gustav Mahler appointed him (1901) assistant conductor of the Vienna State
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, and George SzellSzell, George
, 1897–1970, American conductor and pianist, b. Budapest. He moved with his family to Vienna during his childhood and started his piano training at an early age studying at the State Academy of Music in Vienna and in Leipzig.
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. The orchestra is especially known for its performances of Gustav MahlerMahler, Gustav
, 1860–1911, composer and conductor, born in Austrian Bohemia of Jewish parentage. Mahler studied at the Univ. of Vienna and the Vienna Conservatory.
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 and Richard StraussStrauss, Richard
, 1864–1949, German composer. Strauss brought to a culmination the development of the 19th-century symphonic poem, and was a leading composer of romantic opera in the early 20th cent.
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