Ruanda-Urundi


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Ruanda-Urundi

(ro͞oän`dä-o͞oro͞on`dē), former colonial territory, central Africa, now divided between the independent states of RwandaRwanda
, officially Republic of Rwanda, republic (2015 est. pop. 11,630,000), 10,169 sq mi (26,338 sq km), E central Africa. It borders on Congo (Kinshasa) in the west, on Uganda in the north, on Tanzania in the east, and on Burundi in the south.
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 and BurundiBurundi
, officially Republic of Burundi, republic (2015 est. pop. 10,199,000), 10,747 sq mi (27,834 sq km), E central Africa. It borders on Rwanda in the north, on Tanzania in the east, on Lake Tanganyika in the southwest, and on Congo (Kinshasa) in the west.
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. The original inhabitants of the area were the Twa, a PygmyPygmy
or Pigmy
, term used for dark-skinned people who live in equatorial rain forests and average less than 59 in. (150 cm) in height. Some studies make a distinction between Negrillos, who live in Africa, and Negritos, who live in Southeast Asia, New Guinea, and the
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 people, who around A.D. 1000 were driven into the forests by the numerically superior Hutu, a Bantu-speaking agricultural people who immigrated from the east. Probably in the 15th cent., the pastoral TutsiTutsi
or Watutsi
, cattle-raising people of central Africa, particularly in Burundi and Rwanda; they are also known as Watusi or Batusi. The original Tutsi homeland was probably in Ethiopia, and c.400 years ago they migrated south to around Lake Kivu.
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 entered the area from the north. Although greatly outnumbered by the Hutu, the Tutsi gained dominance over them and by the 19th cent. had established two centralized states, Rwanda and Burundi. The first Europeans to explore the region were Oskar Baumann (in 1892) and Graf von Götzen (in 1894). Germany had gained rights to the region at the Conference of Berlin (1884–85), but only began to administer (as parts of German East AfricaGerman East Africa,
former German colony, c.370,000 sq mi (958,300 sq km), E Africa. Dar es Salaam was the capital. German influence emerged in the area in 1884 when Carl Peters, the German explorer, obtained treaties over parts of the territory.
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) Burundi in 1897 and Rwanda in 1907. During World War I, Belgium conquered (1916) the region, and, in 1924, Ruanda-Urundi was formally constituted a mandate of the League of Nations under Belgian rule. In 1946 it became a UN trust territory. Under neither the German nor the Belgian administrations was the social structure of Burundi altered, but in Rwanda the Hutu in 1960–61 gained dominance over the Tutsi. There was little economic development during the colonial period, but missionaries gained many adherents for Christianity. When Ruanda-Urundi achieved independence on July 1, 1962, it was split into two territories, Rwanda and Burundi, and by 1964 all common administrative bodies had been dissolved.

Ruanda-Urundi

 

a League of Nations mandate territory under the administration of Belgium from 1922 to 1946. From 1946 to 1962, Ruanda-Urundi was a trust territory of the UN. On June 27, 1962, the UN decided to discontinue the agreement that had established a trusteeship over Ruanda-Urundi. On July 1, 1962, the independent states of Burundi and Rwanda were formed on the territory of Ruanda-Urundi.

Ruanda-Urundi

a former territory of central Africa: part of German East Africa from 1890; a League of Nations mandate under Belgian administration from 1919; a United Nations trusteeship from 1946; divided into the independent states of Rwanda and Burundi in 1962
References in periodicals archive ?
Louis' first monograph was on Ruanda-Urundi, 1884-1919 (1963), but his most original work is a succession of books on decolonization, notably Imperialism at Bay, 1941-1945: the United States and the decolonization of the British empire (1977), The British empire in the Middle East 1945-1951: Arab nationalism, the United States, and postwar imperialism (1984), and two major edited collections for the British Documents on the End of Empire series covering the Macmillan government (co-edited with Ronald Hyam, 2000) and the period from 1964 to 1971 (with S.
The Tutsis, who had reigned over Ruanda-Urundi for centuries, had come from the North, from Egypt or Ethiopia.
Boutique, Flora du Congo-Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, Spermatophytes, 6:141-142.
Administration Coloniale du Ruanda-Urundi, Rapport 1927, p.
Pictures and reports indicated little about the historical origins of the tragedy beyond mentioning that, until the early 1960s, Belgium had ruled this region of southeastern central Africa, including the huge Belgian Congo and its tiny eastern neighbors, Ruanda-Urundi, which on their independence became known as Rwanda and Burundi.
The territory of Ruanda-Urundi was placed within this system.
Belgium's special representative for Ruanda-Urundi to the Trusteeship Council summed up his country's policy succinctly: "The real work is to change the African in his essence, to transform his soul, [and] to do that one must love him and enjoy having daily contact with him.
Compounding the problem was the growth of the territory's population, which roughly doubled in the thirty years between the end of World War I and the end of World War II, and doubled again in the fifteen years before Ruanda-Urundi gained independence.
France and Britain controlled most of the African countries except for Congo (current Democratic Republic of the Congo), Ruanda-Urundi (Rwanda and Burundi) (7) controlled by Belgium, Angola and Mozambique by Portugal, and Togoland (Togo), Cameroon, Tanganyika (Tanzania), and again Ruanda-Urundi (Rwanda and Burundi) until World War I by Germany (8).
7) Ruanda-Urundi was controlled by Germany until World War I then became a colony of Belgium.
Following World War II, Ruanda-Urundi became a UN Trust Territory with Belgium as the administrative authority.