Ruaya

Ruaya

 

(singular raiyat), in Muslim countries of the Middle East, originally, all subjects; from the ninth century, members of the tax-paying classes of peasants and townspeople. In the late Middle Ages, the may a were primarily payers of the land tax, the kharaj, hence feudally dependent peasants; juridically they were considered free, but in fact they were deprived of the right to move to another place (in contrast to the ranjbaran in Azerbaijan and Armenia of the 16th to mid-19th centuries, who were attached to the person of the landowner). The prohibition forbidding the ruaya to move was abolished in Iran in the early 20th century. In the Ottoman Empire from the 18th century, the Turks applied the term ruaya only to the non-Muslim population, regardless of social positon.

References in periodicals archive ?
Maria and Rocky Acidre to lean on, as well as former Letran Knights Jom Sollano and Ford Ruaya in the Valenzuela camp.
Dapa Mayor Yulie Yangson Ruaya during the hand-over ceremony was thankful to DTI Surigao del Norte headed by provincial director Celestino L.
Ford Ruaya stepped up in the absence of Kevin Racal as he finished with 19 points on top of seven boards in his second straight splendid performance for the already-ran Knights.
and Virgen Gil Ruaya on second and fourth boards, respectively, to complete the Red Lions' successful title defense.
Letran's Reneford Ruaya drives between Arellano University's Prince Caperal and Ralph Salcedo during their NCAA game yesterday at The Arena in San Juan.
Virgen Gil Ruaya trounced Bryan Barcelon on fourth board for the Pirates' lone win.
Antonia Edita Dizon, Danilo Leyva, Raymund Rigodon, Liway Czarina Ruizo, Sonny Von Ruaya, Lilian Abenojar, John Dale Ballinan, Melbourn Ziro Pana, and Ma.
RACAL 72-Grey 12, Paniamogan 11, Javier 10, Maiquez 9, Terso 9, Celiz 5, Banal 4, Gabawan 4, Ortuoste 3, Robles 3, Ruaya 2, Corpuz 0, Neypes 0.
RACAL 72 - Grey 12, Paniamogan 11, Javier 10, Maiquez 9, Terso 9, Celiz 5, Banal 4, Gabawan 4, Ortuoste 3, Robles 3, Ruaya 2, Corpuz 0, Neypes 0.
RACAL 122-Celiz 17, Robles 14, Banal 13, Paniamogan 12, Maiquez 11, Neypes 10, Grey 9, Javier 9, Ortuoste 9, Ruaya 7, Corpuz 4, Gabawan 4, Ambulodto 2, Terso 1.
RACAL 122 - Celiz 17, Robles 14, Banal 13, Paniamogan 12, Maiquez 11, Neypes 10, Grey 9, Javier 9, Ortuoste 9, Ruaya 7, Corpuz 4, Gabawan 4, Ambulodto 2, Terso 1.
RACAL 102 - Grey 20, Paniamogan 16, Terso 13, Maiquez 11, Javier 10, Robles 9, Ortuoste 8, Celiz 4, Corpuz 4, Neypes 3, Banal 2, Gabawan 1, Ruaya 1, McCarthy 0.