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ruby,precious stone, the transparent red variety of corundumcorundum
, mineral, aluminum oxide, Al2O3. The clear varieties are used as gems and the opaque as abrasive materials. Corundum occurs in crystals of the hexagonal system and in masses. It is transparent to opaque and has a vitreous to adamantine luster.
..... Click the link for more information. , found chiefly in Myanmar, Thailand, and Sri Lanka and classified among the most valuable of gems. The Myanmarese stones are blood red, the most valued tint being the "pigeon's blood." The Thai stones are darker and the Sri Lankan stones lighter than the Myanmarese specimens. Star rubies, i.e., those that show an internal star-shaped formation when cut in cabochon (with a rounded top), are rare. Synthetic rubies are manufactured by the fusion of pure aluminum oxide. Chromium oxide is added to provide the appropriate color.
(Late Latin rubinus, from the Latin rubeus, “red”), a variety of the mineral corundum (Al2O3) distinguished by the replacement of Al3+ ions by Cr3+ ions (from hundredths of a percent to 2 percent). The quantum transitions between the energy levels of the Cr3+ ions split by the crystal field give rise to the ruby’s red color (in contrast to the lack of color of corundum). The laser emission of ruby in the red part of the visible spectrum is related to the transitions between various levels of the Cr3+ ions, while the action of ruby as a quantum mechanical amplifier of radio waves (maser) is related to transitions between spin states.
The ruby is a precious stone of order I. In the USSR, rubies occur in alluvial deposits in the Central and Southern Urals. Outside the Soviet Union, there are important industrial deposits in Burma, Thailand, and Sri Lanka.
Synthetic rubies, obtained by the same process as that used for corundum (but with the addition of Cr2O3), are used in the jewelry and watchmaking industries. They also find use in quantum electronics as the active element of the maser and of the most common solid-state laser, which gives record energies and powers as well as giant pulses.
REFERENCESMineraly: Spravochnik, vol. 2. Moscow, 1965.
Rubinisapfir. Moscow, 1974.
A. S. MARFUNIN
What does it mean when you dream about a ruby?
A gemstone that varies from light pink to deep red, the ruby represents passion, the life force, and prosperity. The deeper and more intense the color, the more precious and expensive the stone.
1. A relational language designed by Jones and M. Sheeran in 1986 for describing and designing circuits (a hardware description language). Ruby programs denote binary relations and programs are built-up inductively from primitive relations using a pre-defined set of relational operators. Ruby programs also have a geometric interpretation as networks of primitive relations connected by wires, which is important when layout is considered in circuit design.
Ruby has been continually developed since 1986, and has been used to design many different kinds of circuits, including systolic arrays, butterfly networks and arithmetic circuits.
["Ruby - A Language of Relations and Higher-Order Functions", M. Sheeran, Proc 3rd Banff Workshop on Hardware Verification, Springer 1990].
RubyAn interpreted, object-oriented programming language that is somewhat similar to Perl in syntax. Known for its easy manipulation of text strings, everything in Ruby is an object, including primitive elements. Ruby programs and libraries are distributed in Ruby's "gem" format using the RubyGems package manager. JRuby is a Ruby implementation written in Java, and eRuby is an embedded version.
Ruby on Rails
Ruby on Rails (RoR) is an open source application framework for Ruby that is widely used for writing Web applications.
Rubies and Pearls
Written by Yukihiro Matsumoto and introduced in 1995, Ruby was named after the July birthstone that followed the Pearl birthstone of June. The design goal for Ruby was to create a language that was more intuitive for the programmer than previous languages. For more information, visit www.ruby-lang.org.
IronRuby (Implementation Running on .NET Ruby) is an open source version for the .NET platform. The source code is available under Microsoft's Public License. See .NET.