rudder

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rudder,

mechanism for steering an airplaneairplane,
 aeroplane,
or aircraft,
heavier-than-air vehicle, mechanically driven and fitted with fixed wings that support it in flight through the dynamic action of the air.
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 or a ship. In ships it is a flat-surfaced structure hinged to the stern and controlled by a helm. When the ship is on a straight course, the rudder is in line with the vessel; if the rudder is turned to one side or the other it offers sufficient resistance to the water to deflect the stern, thus changing the direction of the ship. In earliest times, as in small boats today, a paddle or oar hand-operated at the stern served to turn a boat. Later, Greek and Roman vessels required two rudders, one at each end, in order to maintain course when the prow or stern lifted out of the water. Vikings placed the rudder not directly on the stern but on the right side near it; thus the term starboard (steerboard) is used for the right side of a vessel. By the early 14th cent. the stern rudder had generally replaced the side rudder, and in the latter half of the 19th cent. wooden rudders gave way to iron and steel. Large modern liners have rudders that are 60 ft (18 m) or more in height and weigh 100 tons.

Rudder

 

in vessels, a device for maintaining the vessel on course and for turning the vessel while under way. The rudder is usually a slab (the blade of the rudder), which can rotate about its vertical axis (vertical rudder). When the rudder is turned from the straight position, its surfaces are subjected to hydrodynamic forces that shift the vessel from the trajectory of steady-state motion. The rudder blade is flat or streamlined.

Rudders may be of the simple, balanced, and semibalanced

Figure 1. Ship’s rudders: (a) simple, (b) balanced, (c) semibalanced; (1) rudderstock (axis of rotation), (2) blade

type, depending on the position of the rudder blade in relation to its axis of rotation (see Figure 1). Less force is required to turn balanced rudders in comparison with simple rudders. A vessel’s maneuverability and controllability depend on the rudder’s characteristics, including area and shape. The rudder is usually located at the vessel’s stern; it may sometimes be mounted at the bow, for example, in ferryboats.

On some vessels, the rudder’s function is performed by deflection nozzles, which change the direction of the stream of water thrust back by the vessel’s propeller. Vessels with rotary-blade propellers can maneuver without the use of a rudder. In addition to vertical rudders, horizontal rudders (diving planes or diving rudders, used to control motion in a vertical plane) are installed on submarines. Rudders may also be equipped with a propeller on the blade in order to improve controllability at low speeds and for maneuvering at standstill.

E. G. LOGOVINOVICH

rudder

[′rəd·ər]
(engineering)
A flat, usually foil-shaped movable control surface attached upright to the stern of a boat, ship, or aircraft, and used to steer the craft.

rudder

rudder
The primary vertical and movable control surface, which is hinged to the fin and primarily controls the yawing movement of the aircraft. The rudder is moved by foot-operated pedals (called rudder pedals in the cockpit. A rudder application causes a yawing motion about the vertical axes. A typical rudder control surface includes aerodynamic balance and tab features. All-moving vertical stabilizers replace rudders on some supersonic aircraft.

rudder

1. Nautical a pivoted vertical vane that projects into the water at the stern of a vessel and can be controlled by a tiller, wheel, or other apparatus to steer the vessel
2. a vertical control surface attached to the rear of the fin used to steer an aircraft, in conjunction with the ailerons
References in classic literature ?
We were all now anxious to test the efficiency of the rudder and screw, and we put them both into requisition forthwith, for the purpose of altering our direction more to the eastward, and in a line for Paris.
It has veered, however, very considerably to the north ; and now, at sundown, we are holding our course due west, principally by the screw and rudder, which answer their purposes to admiration.
In less than an hour he left the rudder and furled his sails, whilst the sledge, carried forward by the great impetus the wind had given it, went on half a mile further with its sails unspread.
162" lifts to a long-drawn wail of the breeze in the fore-flange of the rudder and we make Valencia (white, green, white) at a safe
Even in this thin air the lift-shunts are busy taking out one-third of its normal lift, and still "162" must be checked by an occasional downdraw of the rudder or our flight would become a climb to the stars.
There is the faint "szgee" of the rudder, and back slides the arrow to 6000 on a falling slant of ten or fifteen knots.
At the same moment the wooden- legged man threw himself upon the rudder and put it hard down, so that his boat made straight in for the southern bank, while we shot past her stern, only clearing her by a few feet.
"Take the helm, and let us see what you know." The young man took the helm, felt to see if the vessel answered the rudder promptly and seeing that, without being a first-rate sailer, she yet was tolerably obedient, --
But these gave place to a heavy swell; I felt sick and hardly able to hold the rudder, when suddenly I saw a line of high land towards the south.
After all this was done, I had my man Friday to teach as to what belonged to the navigation of my boat; though he knew very well how to paddle a canoe, he knew nothing of what belonged to a sail and a rudder; and was the most amazed when he saw me work the boat to and again in the sea by the rudder, and how the sail jibed, and filled this way or that way as the course we sailed changed; I say when he saw this he stood like one astonished and amazed.
The results of this cooperation include rudders that are by far the heaviest per square metre that DMC has ever built and rudder stocks with a diameter of over a 1000 mm.
The changing frequency of the angle of attack is limited, whereas the change in rudder deflection varies significantly for different types of rudders.