Runge, Philipp Otto

Runge, Philipp Otto

(fē`lĭp ôt`ō ro͝ong`ə), 1777–1810, German painter. Immersed in the mysticism of the romantic movement in Germany, Runge became a central figure of romantic painting. He was influenced by C. D. FriedrichFriedrich, Caspar David
, 1774–1840, German romantic landscape painter. After studying painting in Copenhagen he visited various scenic spots in Germany and chose to live in Dresden, where he remained until his death.
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 and by Goethe to express universal harmonies in his art. His Rest on the Flight into Egypt (c.1805) is in the Kunsthalle in Hamburg.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Runge, Philipp Otto


Born July 23, 1777, in Wolgast, Mecklenburg; died Dec. 2, 1810, in Hamburg. German painter, graphic artist, and art theorist.

Runge attended the Copenhagen Academy of Arts from 1799 to 1801 and the Dresden Academy of Arts from 1801 to 1803. He was one of the founders of romanticism in German painting. In 1802–03, Runge worked on the allegorical painting The Times of Day, of which only the first finished version of The Morning (1808, Kunsthalle, Hamburg) has been preserved. The painting was intended to embody the mystical spirituality of nature as expressed in the Christian pantheism of J. Boehme. The most significant of Runge’s works, The Times of Day was important in the artist’s research in optics (Color spectra…, 1810). Runge’s portraits were distinguished by fidelity to nature and by the portrayal of profound inner feeling concealed beneath a contemplative exterior (We Three, 1805, not preserved; The Artist’s Parents, 1806, Kunsthalle, Hamburg).


Hinterlassene Schriften, vols. 1–2. Hamburg, 1840–41.


Berefelt, G. P. O. Runge. Uppsala, 1961.
Bisanz, R. M. German Romanticism and Philipp Otto Runge. De Kalb, 111.1970.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Runge, Philipp Otto. Hinterlassene Schriften von Philipp Otto Range.