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1. (of a wound, sore, etc.) discharging pus or a serous fluid
2. (of certain plants, plant stems, etc.) creeping along the ground
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a means of transportation by which, as defined by P. F. Lesgaft, the body “is either touching the ground with one foot or flying in the air,” in contrast to walking, when the body has constant support on one or two legs. Running is a valuable means of physical exercise. It is used extensively in physical exercises for children and young people, as well as in industrial and general-health gymnastics, in the training of servicemen, in exercises for physical training of the elderly, and in therapeutic physical culture. In sports, running accounts for approximately two-thirds of light athletics and is an element in almost all other kinds of sports.

Track competitions were held in ancient Egypt, Assyria, and ancient Greece. For a long time running was the only sport in the Olympic, Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian games. In the Middle Ages running was compulsory in the physical training programs of knights and ecclesiastics. Track meets first began in England. In Russia regular running events were first organized in 1888 by P. P. Moskvin (later Honored Master of Sport) and his Amateur Runners Society. By the end of the 19th century track was encouraged in almost all countries.

Track consists of flat races—that is, races on level surfaces, running tracks, and so on—and obstacle races—hurdles, steeplechase, obstacle courses, and crosscountry. The classic track events for men are the sprint (running a short distance; 100, 200, and 400 m), middle-distance race (running 800, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 m), longdistance race, or stayer run (running a long distance; 3,000, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, and 30,000 m), marathon race (42 km and 193 m), and one-hour run; hurdles (110, 200, and 400 m), steeplechase (3,000 m), and relay race (4 X 100, 4 X 200, 4 X 400,4 X 800, and 4 X 1,500 m). For women the events are the 60-, 100-, 200-, 400-, 800-, 1,000-, and 1,500-meter races; hurdles (100 and 200 m); and relay races (4 X 100, 4 X 200, and 4 X 800 m). In all of these events except the marathon world records are registered. Most of the contests, including the marathon, which is obligatory, are included in the program of the Olympic Games.

Among Soviet runners, the most well known are the brothers S. and G. Znamenskii, in whose name an annual prize (since 1947) is awarded to the winner of the Humanité cross-country race in France; in the USSR memorial sports competitions have been held in their honor since 1949; V. Kuts, former eight time world record holder and winner of the 5,000- and 10,000-meter races in the 1956 Olympics in Melbourne; P. Bolotnikov, champion at the 1960 Olympic Games in Rome and twice world record holder in the 10,000-meter race. Among Soviet women who won world acclaim as middle-distance runners are E. Vasilieva, who set 12 world records; N. Otkalenko, who bettered 14 world records; L. Lysenko, champion at the 1960 Olympics and holder of five world records; and I. Press, world record holder and Olympic champion in the 80-meter hurdles, who set six world records at this distance.

Foreign runners include P. Nurmi of Finland, who set 24 world records and was champion of the Olympic Games in Antwerp (1920), Paris (1924), and Amsterdam (1928). The American J. Owens set six world records in one track-and-field meet (Ann Arbor, 1935), and at the 1936 Olympics in Berlin he became the champion in the 100-meter and 200-meter dashes and 400-meter relay. E. Zatopek of Czechoslovakia, who set 18 world records, was an Olympic Games champion in London (1948) in the 10,000-meter race and in Helsinki (1952) in the 5,000-meter race, 10,000-meter race, and marathon. The Australian R. Clarke broke the long-distance and one-hour run records 11 times in 1965. One of the best female runners is F. Blankers-Koen of Holland, winner of four Olympic gold medals (London, 1948) and 14-time world record holder.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

What does it mean when you dream about running?

Running away or escaping may indicate that the dreamer needs to get away from a person or situation that is overwhelming the dreamer. A slower pace of life may be indicated.

The Dream Encyclopedia, Second Edition © 2009 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.


1. Linked in a smooth progression, inclining to the right or the left, within a band; applied to various ornamental motifs.
2. Forming a cornice in place with a running mold.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


Dreaming of running competitively should be distinguished from dreams which have you running to or from something. If you are simply running with no goal, it may be an indication that you need to slow down in your every day life. If you are competing, you need to consider your recent rivalries and realistically look at the current challenges. If you are running in a race and win, your unconscious may be expressing confidence that you may or may not feel in the wakened state. Running in your dreams may also symbolize the energy levels, the strength, or the force that you have to get through life.
Bedside Dream Dictionary by Silvana Amar Copyright © 2007 by Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Comparison of REE expressed as relative oxyge uptake at each running speed indicated a significant interaction (F(6, 36) = 4.88, p = 0.001, [[eta].sup.2] = 0.449) between time (Trial-1 and Trial-3) and running speed (Figure 2), however, the simple comparisons only approached significance (9.6 km x [h.sup.-1], p = 0.09; 11.2 km x [h.sup.-1], p = 0.06; 12.8 km x [h.sup.-1], p = 0.08).
where Y is type of left-turning vehicle path (1 for normal path, 0 for abnormal path); I is the number of lanes on minor road (1 for two lanes, 0 for four lanes); [V.sub.l] is the running speed of left-turning vehicle on minor road approach (km/hour); [V.sub.m] is the running speed of vehicle on major road (km/hour); and [T.sub.m] is time headway of vehicles on major road (seconds).
All of the pumps were run at their maximum acceleration, running speed, and deceleration to give the best non-contact dispense performance.
For women (Table 3), body fat percentage and running speed during training sessions were significantly correlated to half-marathon race times.
Run Faster Method is the guide for the runners and athletes who want to improve their running speed. It practically teaches them how to run faster.
The researchers controlled for body size and evolutionary relationships, and found that the relationship between eye diameter and maximum running speed is stronger than the relationship between body mass and running speed.
Although flapping wings almost doubled DASH's running speed, that probably wouldn't have been fast enough to get a creature like Archaeopteryx off the ground and into free flight.
Many runners are adverse to the idea of dropping mileage and replacing the lost miles with explosive strength training, but this new research reveals that such a strategy can significantly improve maximal running speed and leg muscle power, without any loss in maximal aerobic capacity.
As a football player needs to cover a certain distance in order to reach high running speed, the correlation between the variables of average sprint run and maximum speed (r=0,83) is logical.
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] Height 2 feet at the shoulder Weight 15 to 50 pounds Length 4 feet, including its tail Running Speed up to 40 miles per hour Jumping Height up to 12 feet
In 2004, the South African Journal of Sports Medicine (SA J Sports Med 2004; 16(3): 26-27) published a commentary analysing Comrades marathon records by running speed rather than race time, as the race distance varies considerably from year to year and finishing times do not therefore indicate who really have run the fastest over the course.

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