Surface Runoff

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surface runoff

[′sər·fəs ′rən‚ȯf]
(hydrology)
Runoff that moves over the soil surface to the nearest surface stream.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Surface runoff

The precipitation, snow melt, or irrigation water in excess of what can infiltrate the soil surface and be stored in small surface depressions; a major transporter of non-point-source pollutants in rivers, streams and lakes.
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Surface Runoff

 

movement of water across the earth’s surface owing to the force of gravity. A distinction is made between sheet flow and channel flow. Sheet flow is made up of rain and meltwater and moves down slopes, without fixed channels. Channel flow occurs in definite linear directions, in the channels of rivers and bottoms of ravines and gulleys. Subterranean water and groundwater sometimes also form part of channel flow.

Surface runoff is described by the volume of water flowing across a surface (the modulus of runoff) and is expressed either as l/sec/km2 or as a depth in mm per year or some other period. In the USSR, the lowest modulus of runoff— in the arid regions of the Middle Asian plain— is 0–1 l/sec/km2, while the highest goes up to 125 l/sec/km2, in the mountains of the Western Caucasus. Surface runoff varies over time. The average annual modulus of runoff in the Vorskla River basin is 2.1 l/sec/km2, but the maximum figure, during spring high water, is 220 l/sec/km2. In the Primor’e, where the modulus of average runoff is 8-15 l/sec/km2, the maximum modulus of direct runoff reaches 600–700 l/sec/km2, and sometimes even more than 1,000 l/sec/km2.

K. G. TIKHOTSKII

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The investigation showed that the trucking company Greene worked for was contracted to haul and dump 75 tons a day of leachate, or runoff water from a landfill, to the Florence site.
The pavers -- about 4,000 square feet -- are permeable and part of a system that allows runoff water to seep through and be filtered before it discharges into the Fox River, Hulke said.
The KP has got sloppy area where runoff water flows down with more speed without any check or having permeable surface for infiltration.
Another grant was awarded for the creation of a school "bioswale," a landscape drainage feature that removes pollutants from surface runoff water.
They can store water in the substrate layer before it's used by the plants, and they also filter runoff water. Plus, in a city, they help mitigate the urban heat island effect by replacing traditional black-topped roofs and cooling the air.
Every year beginning in January and going through the first of March they breed in temporary forested pools formed from runoff water, where the eggs laid in egg masses hatch and eventually metamorph into adult salamanders before the pools dry up in early summer.
This is in addition to the rise in recycled runoff water from 0.9bn cubic metres to 1.3bn cubic metres during the same period, a rise of 44.4%, and this number is expected to increase to 1.6bn by 2017.
The South Carolina Sierra Club asked a South Carolina appeals court to make operators at a nuclear waste site in Barnwell do more to minimize contaminated runoff water.
The project will have at least 100 parking spaces, a training course for bus drivers, a pond for runoff water, and space for snow removal and a backup generator.
In an airport's operating area, an important factor influencing the environment is runoff water. This water may have a negative impact on soil and ground water since it contains a relatively high concentration of pollutants.
The main topics that will be discussed and debated by the panelists will include innovative methods for rain and runoff water modeling, assessment and control of radioactive contamination, remote sensing and GIS applications for water resource management, as well as water harvesting and groundwater recharge.
The mayor said crews have found that one pipeline that channelled runoff water was underperforming and instructions have been given for its repair.