CCD

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Related to Runx2: RUNX1

CCD

Abbrev. for charge-coupled device. A light-sensitive electronic detector, invented 1970, now widely used in ground- and space-based astronomy for imaging, photometry, spectroscopy, astrometry, etc. CCDs are normally sensitive over a wide range of wavelengths from blue light to near-infrared; developments have extended the range further into the IR (see infrared detectors), and into the ultraviolet and X-ray regions (to energies up to about 6 keV). A CCD is small (typically several square centimeters) compared with a photographic plate, and therefore covers a relatively small field of view. It also has a lower resolution than a fine-grained photographic emulsion. It does, however, have a much higher quantum efficiency – i.e. is a much more efficient detector – than emulsion; exposure times are therefore relatively much shorter. CCDs are thus well suited to the imaging of faint objects. They also have a linear response over a wide range of illumination, and in a properly designed and operating CCD system, the response is very stable over long timescales.

Astronomical CCDs are fabricated as a two-dimensional array of tiny pixels (picture elements) on a thin wafer of semiconductor, usually silicon; there may be up to several thousand rows and columns of pixels. When light or other radiation is directed onto this array, each pixel responds to the photons falling on it by producing electrons. Electric charge thus accumulates in each pixel in proportion to the amount of incident radiation. After an exposure, these packets of charge are shifted out of the array and the accumulated charge in each pixel is measured, row by row. The values are digitized and stored in a computer, and may be used to form an image on a computer screen or may be further manipulated or analyzed. There is a direct relationship between the intensity of the recorded image and the original exposure, hence the linear response. Noise is, however, introduced as the charges are moved out of the CCD, amplified, digitized, and stored in the computer, thus placing a lower limit on the signal that can be accurately recorded; this readout noise can be reduced by cooling the CCD.

CCD

(electronics)

CCD

CCD

(1) (Charge-Coupled Device) See CCD sensor.

(2) (Consumer Computing Device) An earlier term for a low-cost consumer-oriented computing product such as a PDA or Internet appliance.
References in periodicals archive ?
Moreover, the expression level of differentiation-related proteins (ALP, Runx2, and Ocn) were increased by miR-221 mimic, but overexpression of ZFPM2 reversed these effects (P < 0.05, Figure 6E and F).
Phosphorus is mediated mainly in SMCs by PiT1, which causes VSMCs to lose expression of the SM contractile proteins a-SMA and SM22 and instead express the bone markers Runx2, osteocalcin, and ALP, thereby causing vascular calcification.[27] High levels of phosphorus can also induce VSMCs to secrete BMP2, which further stimulates the activation of related transcription factors.
Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osterix (OSX), type I-collagen (COL-I), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1), osteopontin (OPN).
Caption: Figure 7: Relative activity of ALP after culturing for 7 d and 14 d of osteoinduction (a) and OCN and RUNX2 production on the 7th day of osteoinduction (b) (* P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001).
Additionally, compared to titanium alone, graphene possesses osteogenic property enhancing the expression of osteogenic related genes RUNX2, COL-I, and ALP, boosting osteocalcin gene and protein expression, and consequently increasing the deposition of mineralized matrix [35].
Similarly, miR-30a also regulates directly the target genes, such as Eya2, HP1y (CBX3), EZH2, IGF1R, RPA1, Notch, IRS2, SOX4, Runx2, DTL, ATF3, MYC, HIF2a, and SEPT7, which are all involved in regulating cell proliferation procedure.
Komori, "Regulation of osteoblast differentiation by Runx2," Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol.
In Vitro RT-PCR and Western Blotting Analyses of Dkk-1, GSK-3[beta], [beta]-Catenin, Runx2, and PPAR[gamma].
Compared with normal serum (<6.5% HbA1c), the expression of proteins RUNX2, OPN, and OCN clearly decreased as the HbA1c concentration increased (Figure 5).
Runx2, a member of the runt family of transcription factors, is important for osteoblast differentiation [50, 51].
The responsible gene RUNX2 (Runt-related transcription factor 2) is a cloned gene located on the short arm of Chromosome 6 (6p21) [5-8].
miR-194 promotes osteoblast differentiation and activity in studies performed on mouse bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSCs) cultures, by regulating Runx2 nuclear translocation through STAT1 inhibition and by downregulating COUP-TFII mRNA levels, therefore driving mesenchymal cell differentiation towards osteoblasts instead of adipocytes [52, 53].