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a leather made by the combination tanning (with chrome-sintan, chrome-tannide, or chrome-sintan-tannide) of hides from cattle, horses, and swine. To give Russia leather softness, flexibility, water resistance, and the ability to withstand repeated bending, the structural elements of the dermis are separated during production by prolonged liming and generous greasing. (The fat content of Russia leather is as much as 25 percent of the weight of the leather.) Russia leather is finished on the outer side and flesh side by polishing and the application of coats of dye. An artificial grain may be imparted to the leather when the outer side is treated. Russia leather is used for making harnesses, saddles, and the upper parts of sandals, army boots, and working footwear.