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, czar
1. (until 1917) the emperor of Russia
2. Informal a public official charged with responsibility for dealing with a certain problem or issue
3. (formerly) any of several S Slavonic rulers, such as any of the princes of Serbia in the 14th century
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also, czar; from the latin caesar, the title used by the Roman emperors), in Russia and Bulgaria, the official title of the monarch. In Russia the title of tsar was first adopted by Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) in 1547. From 1721 the Russian tsars adopted the title of emperor. In Bulgaria the monarchs bore the title of tsar from the end of the 19th century to the proclamation of the People’s Republic in 1946.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
You are a German actor who plays a Russian tsar. What attracted you to this role?
There is also a report by the Russian consul to Bitola about the Krusevo Uprising, letters exchanged between the Russian representative offices in Istanbul and Skopje about the Macedonian nation and the Macedonians' resolve to unite into a single state, as well as a copy of the conversation of the Russian Tsar with Russian diplomat Orlov about the distinction of the Macedonian nation.
Spurs star Crouch has lots in common with Russian tsar Peter the Great.
He established contact with the Russian tsar to pursue his objective, but failed in his effort.
He is also a distant relative of outlaw Jesse James, the last Russian tsar Nicholas II and King George I.
SARIKAMIS, Jun 25, 2010 (TUR) -- A 113-year old hunting lodge constructed for the Russian Tsar Nicholas II in Sarikamis town of north-eastern province of Kars will go through restoration.
He may have been strengthened in his belief by the fact that in 1907-16 the Finnish unicameral and democratically elected Diet produced very meagre results in terms of social reforms, as a result of the strife between the bourgeois and socialist camps and the great powers of the Russian tsar. In this period Finnish social democracy had stronger electoral support than any other socialist party in the world, but it had very little influence in Finnish politics, due to the extraordinary powers of the tsar.
Britain is like a Potemkin village, those ersatz town frontages built for the Russian Tsar to gaze upon from his barge as he sailed by, apparently oblivious to the truth that there was nothing behind the facade.
His father worked as military attache in the Russian tsar's Tokyo embassy and the young Vladimir had a cosmopolitan childhood.
The books reviewed here represent two approaches to the enigmatic figure of the first Russian tsar, Ivan IV the Terrible (1533-84), both of them typical of modern Russian scholarship.
Jersild explores this process of "construction" of an imperial identity through the example of the territories of the North Caucasus, which were brought under the aegis of the Russian tsar through a series of bloody frontier wars in the early and mid-nineteenth century.
There, they cut a deal with the Russian Tsar Peter the Great: In return for being allowed to create a small kingdom, the nomadic emigres would defend the Russian empire's frontier against invaders.

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