Russo-Swedish Treaties of Alliance

Russo-Swedish Treaties of Alliance

 

The treaty of 1791 was signed on October 8 (19) in Stockholm by Count O. von Stackelberg on behalf of Russia and by Wachtmeister, Taube, Armfelt, Franck, and Hakonsen on behalf of Sweden. It represented the first attempt to create a coalition of European powers against revolutionary France. According to the treaty, Russia and Sweden confirmed the conditions of the Peace Treaty of Värälä (1790) and guaranteed one another’s possessions; additionally, the treaty guaranteed Russian conquests in the as yet unfinished war with Turkey (art. 1–2). In the event of an attack on one of the signatories, the other was obligated to render aid and, if necessary, military assistance (art. 3–4). Provision was made for the demarcation of borders and the conclusion of a trade treaty within one year. The treaty of 1791 was not realized.

The treaty of 1812 was signed on March 24 (April 5) in St. Petersburg and Abo by N. P. Rumiantsev on behalf of Russia and K. Löwenhjelm on behalf of Sweden. Using the common goals of ensuring the security of their possessions as a starting point, the parties agreed to create a combined force to land in Swedish Pomerania, which had been seized by France. Russia obligated itself to aid Sweden in annexing Norway either by negotiations with Denmark or by rendering military assistance until the beginning of joint actions in Germany. Provision was made to invite Great Britain to join the treaty as a full-fledged participant.

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