The third chapter, "La poesia in Toscana" (29-42), treats Brunetto Latini, Francesco da Barberino, la lirica siculo-toscana, Guittone d'Arezzo and the guittoniani, and comic-realist poetry (Rustico di Filippo
, Cecco Angiolieri, Folgore da San Gimignano).
81); Chapter 3 studies the trope of poverty in Angiolieri's poetic corpus, looking outward to the goliardic tradition, Rutebeuf, and the Archpoet as well as to medieval Italian sources, and making some interesting claims about the parodic impulse Angiolieri apparently directs towards Franciscanism; Chapter 4 presents Angiolieri as a practitioner of vituperium, connecting him with Rustico di Filippo
and reading him, innovatively enough, in a theoretical light cast by Luigi Pirandello; and Chapter 5 reads his (at least purported) poetic correspondences with Dante, the otherwise unknown' Simone', and Dante's defender Guelfo Taviani, in an attempt both to position Angiolieri in the tradition of the tenzone and to assess his cultural impact on his poetic contemporaries and successors.
The element of vituperation, a comic upside-down feature in a society anxious about reputation, had its model already in Provencal verse and the thirteenth-century poems of Rustico di Filippo
, and can be linked as well to lovers' complaints about cruel ladies.