Ruthenia


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Ruthenia

(ro͞othē`nēə), Latinized form of the word Russia. The term was applied to Ukraine in the Middle Ages when the princes of Halych briefly assumed the title kings of Ruthenia. Later, in Austria-Hungary, the term Ruthenians was used to designate the Ukrainian population of W Ukraine, which included GaliciaGalicia
, Pol. Galicja, Ukr. Halychyna, Rus. Galitsiya, historic region (32,332 sq mi/83,740 sq km), SE Poland and W Ukraine, covering the slopes of the N Carpathians and plains to the north and bordering on Slovakia in the south.
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, BukovinaBukovina
, Rom. Bucovina, Ukr. Bukovyna, historic region of E Europe, in SW Ukraine and NE Romania. Traversed by the Carpathian Mts. and the upper Prut and Siretul rivers, it is heavily forested [Bukovina
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, and Carpathian Ukraine. After 1918 the term Ruthenia was applied only to the easternmost province of Czechoslovakia, which was also known as Carpathian Ukraine, or by its Czech name, Podkarpatská Rus [Sub-Carpathian Russia]; for the history of this area from 1918, see Transcarpathian RegionTranscarpathian Region
, Ukr. Zarkarpattya Oblast or Zakarpats'ka Oblast, Rus. Zakarpatskaya Oblast, administrative region (1989 pop. 1,252,000), 4,981 sq mi (12,901 sq km), SW Ukraine, on the southwestern slopes of the Carpathian Mts.
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. The inhabitants of Carparthian Ukraine, known as Rusyns or Ruthenians, speak a language (Rusyn or Ruthenian) is closely related to Ukrainian, but culturally, however, the Rusyns were distinct from the Ukrainians, especially after 1596, when the Orthodox Church of the Western Ukraine entered into union with the Roman Catholic Church, and after 1649, when a similar union was effected in Hungary. The Ruthenian Uniate Church of the Byzantine (see Roman Catholic ChurchRoman Catholic Church,
Christian church headed by the pope, the bishop of Rome (see papacy and Peter, Saint). Its commonest title in official use is Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church.
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) thus included the majority of the Rusyns in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, while the Orthodox Church was fully restored (17th cent.) in the Russian part of Ukraine. When most Rusyns were united (1945) in Soviet Ukraine, government pressure resulted in the secession of the Ruthenian Uniate Church from Rome and its reunion with the Russian Orthodox Church. At the same time, the Soviets classified the Rusyns, who had been divided as to whether to regard themselves as ethnically Rusyn, Russian, or Ukrainian, as Ukrainian. This position also was adopted by Communist-ruled Czechoslovakia and Poland with respect to their Rusyn minorities. In 1989 the Uniate Church broke with the Russian Orthodox Church and reestablished its ties with Rome. The end of Communist rule in E Europe also brought a resurgence of a distinct Rusyn identity, although Ukraine has not recognized Transcarpathian Rusyns as an ethnic minority, as well as a interest among some in establishing a Rusyn nation.
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Ruthenia

a region of E Europe on the south side of the Carpathian Mountains: belonged to Hungary from the 14th century, to Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1939, and was ceded to the former Soviet Union in 1945; in 1991 it became part of the newly independent Ukraine
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
In Greater and Lesser Poland, as well as in Masovia, Ruthenia, and Lithuania, Latin was also more convenient and easier to understand for merchants (Bogucka & Samsonowicz 1986: 267), who had to keep records and frequently belonged to the municipal elite (Bartoszewicz 1999: 11).
Nestor Dmytriw's Kanadiiska Rus (Canadian Ruthenia) are also absent.
(16) Germany had received the Sudetenland, while Hungary was also able to achieve territorial revision at Czechoslovakia's expense, namely 12,103 square kilometers from southern Slovakia and southern Ruthenia in 1938, amounting to approximately one-fifth of the territory lost under the terms of the Treaty of Trianon, 1919.
“Christopher Columbus, or better said Cristobal Colon, his Spanish name,” says Rosa “was the pseudonym of Prince Segismundo Henriques born on Madeira and the son of King Ladislau III,” referring to Vladislaus by God's grace king of Poland, Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, and lands of Krakow, Sandomierz, Sieradz, ??czyca, Kuyavia, Supreme Prince of Lithuania, lord and heir of Pomerania and Ruthenia, whom most had accepted perished in Varna 1444 against the Turks.
Considering this situation the Government of the Soviet Union issued an order to the Commander of the Red Army for its units to cross the border and take under their protection the life and livelihood of the people of Western Ukraine and Western White Ruthenia. The Soviet Government also intends to undertake all efforts to release the Polish people from the tragic war which was forced upon them by their irresponsible leaders and to give them the opportunity to exist in peace.
"The Fifteenth-Century Ruthenian Translations from Hebrew and the Heresy of the Judaizers: Is There a Connection?" in Vyacheslav Ivanov and Julia Verkholantsev (eds.), Speculum Slaviae Orientalis: Muscovy, Ruthenia, and Lithuania in the Late Middle Ages.
To us who live here, and to the Chinese in particular, we find that the greatest lesson that this war has taught is in the formula expressed by our British Government, as to the freedom of all nationalities, and if the British Empire is to defend all nationalities, to secure to them freedom, in Serbia, in Poland, in Ruthenia and every small place, surely the sons of the Empire, men brought up under the flag and trained in the great ideals and aspirations of Englishmen, have the right to expect that under the flag they will have liberty they will have the same aspirations to become men, and not to become mere machines, always under the domination of men, cursed under the condition that they are never to aspire to the rights and privileges of tree men.
The special theme of the volume is addressed in 11 essays, among them Hugo Grotius and the 1636 blood libel trials in Lublin, the authority of the Council of Four Lands outside Poland-Lithuania, the Jewish economic elite in Red Ruthenia during the 14th and 15th centuries, and social life and the bounds of Jewish and Canon law in early modern Poland.
The color black is (tri)cyano-2,20200-terpyridyl4,[4.sub.0][4.sub.00]-tricarboxylate ruthenia (II).
It is the diffusion of Poland's musical culture into Ukraine and later on, all of Ruthenia and finally, there is diffusion of Renaissance and Baroque elements into construction and sacral art.
Within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the depopulated and largely destroyed Ruthenia became a territory where professing Orthodoxy put one under suspicion: Orthodoxy ceased to be regarded as a "Greek" religion and began to be regarded as a "Muscovite" one.
When the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, a new nation was formed out of Bohemia, Slovakia, Moravia, Ruthenia and the Sudetenland.