Holzinger et al., "Among the S100 proteins, S100A12
is the most significant marker for psoriasis disease activity," Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, vol.
in vascular smooth muscle accelerates vascular calcification in apolipoprotein E-null mice by activating an osteogenic gene regulatory program.
Wittkowski et al., "Faecal S100A12
as a non-invasive marker distinguishing inflammatory bowel disease from irritable bowel syndrome," Gut, vol.
Qureshi et al., "Plasma S100A12
and soluble receptor of advanced glycation end product levels and mortality in chronic kidney disease stage 5 patients," Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation, vol.
Messina et al., "Serum and mucosal S100 proteins, calprotectin (S100A8/S100A9) and S100A12
, are elevated at diagnosis in children with inflammatory bowel disease," Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol.
The mass restricted score includes four proteomic biomarkers: defensin-2, defensin-1, S100A12
, and S100A8 proteins.
Hexameric calgranulin C (S100A12
) binds to the receptor for advanced glycated end products (RAGE) using symmetric hydrophobic target-binding patches.
Of these proteins, S100A8 (also known as myeloid-related protein 8 and calgranulin A), S100A9 (myeloid-related protein 14, calgranulin B), and S100A12
(calgranulin C) have prompted particular interest among rheumatologists because they are valuable markers of phagocyte activation (2).
Another calcium-binding protein similar to calprotectin, referred to as S100A12
, has recently been reported to be a marker of gut inflammation.
"Expression of the pro-inflammatory protein S100A12
(EN-RAGE) in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis." Rheumatology (Oxford), 2003; 42(11):1383-9.
Thus, the recent study involved one of the most studied and the most promising biomarkers, which is called S100A12
Markers whose significance in intestinal inflammatory diseases was recently evaluated in multiple research include defensins, beta-glucuronidases, myeloperoxidase, pyruvate kinase, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, calgranulin C (S100A12
), osteoprotegerin, matrix metalloproteinases, 3-like-chitinase 1, high-mobility nuclear protein, and deoxyribonucleic acid.