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, an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another.
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(pen name of Mirza Alekper Tairzade). Born May 19 (31), 1862, in the city of Shemakha; died there July 12 (25), 1911. Azerbaijani poet.

Sabir was a student in a madrasa and then studied in the new-method school of the poet Seid Azim Shirvani. In his early years he wrote lyric ghazals. The revolution of 1905–07 awakened civic motifs in Sabir’s poetry. His works were published in the satirical journal Molla Nasreddin under the pen name Khop-khop (Hoopoe), which he later changed frequently in order to hide his authorship from the reactionaries who were persecuting him. Satirizing such characters as a religious fanatic, a family patriarch, an intellectual alienated from the common people, and a hypocritical mullah, Sabir lashed out at everything that impeded progress and advocated enlightenment and freedom.

Through his social satires, Sabir was the first in Azerbaijani literature to raise the question of class oppression. Working people perceived in his satires a call to struggle for their rights. His political satires reflected the dissolution of the State Duma in Russia, the intrigues of the autocracy against the liberation movements in countries of the Middle East, the despotism of the Turkish sultan, and the schemes of the international forces of reaction.

Sabir and Dzh. Mamedkulizade, together with other progressive writers, created a new satirical school in Azerbaijani realist literature. Sabir’s poetry and the better works of other Molla Nasreddin writers were the first examples of proletarian literature to appear in the Azerbaijani language. They prepared the way for further development of Azerbaijani Soviet literature.


Bütün äsärläri. Baku, 1934.
Hophopnamä, vols. 1–3. Baku, 1962–65.
In Russian translation:
Izbrannoe. Baku, 1962. [Foreword by M. Ibragimov; commentary and notes by A. Sharif.]
Izbr. satiry. Moscow, 1962. [Foreword by L. Pen’kovskii.]


Sharif, A. Zhizn’ipoeticheskoe tvorchestvo Sabira (1862–1911). Moscow, 1951.
Mirähmä dov, A. Sabir. Baku, 1958.
Zamanov, A. Sabir vä müasirlari. Baku, 1973. Az. Sharif



an urban-type settlement in Shemakha Raion, Azerbaijan SSR. Located on the Pirsagat River, on the Baku-Tbilisi highway, 79 km northeast of the Kiurdamir railroad station, on the Tbilisi-Aliat line. Sabir has a winery.

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'Because of this clown, a five-minute wait turns into 40 minutes,' stresses Sabir Lala.
Mr Sabir Senior had built up the family business after starting off as a factory worker and part time taxi driver before his son opened his first fish and chip shop in Grimsby in 2005.
Nazir Sabir who was also a former provincial minister for Education criticized the devolution of tourism to the
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'The transfer of the SABIR system, along with the Scan Eagle system this past March and the C-208 aircraft in August 2017, represents our steadfast commitment to enhancing the capabilities of the Armed Forces of the Philippines,' Kim said at the turnover ceremony.
The US embassy said the SABIR was given to the Philippine Air Force (PAF) through Maritime Security Initiative (MSI) funding, a US initiative to build the maritime capacity of Southeast Asian nations.
US Ambassador to the Philippines Sung Kim said Sabir was a 'critical asset' for the Philippine military.
"The transfer of the SABIR system today, along with the Scan Eagle system this past March, and the C-208 aircraft in August 2017, represents our steadfast commitment to enhancing the capabilities of the Armed Forces of the Philippines," Kim said.
On October 9 Sabir attended at their home in College Street East and "banged on the door in quite an aggressive manner'.'.
Makhdum Miyon Sabir Walhari acquired his early education from Miyon Amin of Dasuri, another eminent Naqshbandi Sufi of the eighteenth century.
But it turned sour for Mr Sabir, who was returning from Pakistan after a charity visit and only missed the Lahore bombing by three hours.
"Two men were driving the boat which was loaded with 63 boxes [filled with explosive devices]," said Mohammed Sabir, the director of the Mocha Port.